Screening of bone mineral density by densitometer and correlation with serum calcium and vitamin D levels to detect early osteoporotic changes in postmenopausal women in slum areas of Raipur and Kalupur of Ahmedabad

Adarshjit Singh, Harpreet Singh, Safal Patel


Background: Osteoporosis is a rising health difficulty, which is renowned in both developed and developing countries. It is linked with considerable morbidity and socio-economic burden worldwide. Various factors are responsible for osteoporosis such as race, family history, body weight, estrogen deficiency (menopause), low calcium intake, and many others. The present study was aimed to early prediction and evaluates the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of slum area of Ahmedabad (Raipur and Kalupur).

Methods: The prospective, single-center study included 230 postmenopausal women. Baseline demographic characteristics were recorded using standard pre-designed case record form. Eligible patients according to inclusion and exclusion criteria were underwent for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan to measure bone mass density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and hip bone. Laboratory investigations such as serum calcium and serum vitamin D were performed according to standard procedure. Prediction for early detection of osteopenia and osteoporosis was evaluated based on T-score (DEXA scan).

Results: The overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis were found 28.69% and 44.34%, respectively. Prevalence of osteoporosis was found higher (50.72%) in study population belongs to age between 51 and 60 years, whereas the prevalence of osteopenia was higher (38.53%) in age group (41-50). In further, normal body mass index was associated with the higher prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The calcium deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, family history of osteoporosis were found major risk factor associated with osteopenia and osteoporosis (p<0.05). T-score was much lower at femoral neck site (−3.29±0.47) and lumbar spine site (−3.15±0.50) when compared with hip bone (−2.40±0.68).

Conclusions: The present study found moderately higher prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among the postmenopausal women from slum area of Ahmedabad. Results revealed that the early measurement of bone mineral density will not only help for early detection, but it will also help for the prevention of osteoporosis.


Bone mass density, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal women

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