DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20175222

Zolpidem dependence with frontal lobe syndrome: a case report

Udayan Majumder, Rajesh Das, Rajkumar Lenin Singh

Abstract


Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic that binds to the benzodiazepine binding site on the gammaaminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors. It is the most commonly prescribed sleep medication which has been shown to be effective for treating insomnia on a short-term basis with fewer side effects than traditional benzodiazepines, which are feared for their abuse and dependence potential. Many studies have reported efficacy and safety of zolpidem in treatment of insomnia keeping in mind about its low abuse, and dependence capability. We present a case of zolpidem dependence in a 36-year-old male to emphasize that zolpidem also should be judiciously prescribed under supervision so that it does not develop tolerance, abuse and dependence.


Keywords


Dependence, Frontal lobe syndrome, Insomnia, Zolpidem

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6(2):97-111.

IMS, Vector One: National (VONA) and Total Patient Tracker (TPT). Year 2011. Extracted June 2012.

Mitler MM. Nonselective and selective benzodiazepine receptor agonists where are we today? Sleep. 2000;23(1):39-47.

Rush CR, Baker RW, Wright K. Acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam in humans. Psychopharmacology. 1999;144(3):220-33.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Guidance on the use of zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone for short term management of insomnia. London: NICE (Technology Appraisal 77); 2004.

Damm J, Eser D, Moeller HJ, Rupprecht R. Severe dependency on zolpidem in a patient with multiple sclerosis suffering from paraspasticity. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11(2):516-8.

Sethi PK, Khandelwal DC. Zolpidem at supratherapeutic doses can cause drug abuse, dependence and withdrawal seizures. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:139-40.

Pitchot W, Ansseau M. Zolpidem dependence and withdrawal seizure. Rev Med Liege. 2009;64:407-8.

Wang LJ, Ree SC, Chu CL, Juang YY. Zolpidem dependence and withdrawal seizure report of two cases. Psychiatr Danub. 2011;23(1):76-8.

Rappa LR, Larose-Pierre M, Payne DR, Eraikhuemen NE, Lanes DM, Kearson ML. Detoxification from High-dose zolpidem using Diazepam. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:590-4.

Liappas IA, Malitas PN, Dimopoulos NP, Gitsa OE, Liappas AI, Nikolaou ChK, et al. Zolpidem dependence case series: possible neurobiological mechanisms and clinical management. J Psychopharmacol. 2003;17(1):131-5.

Hajak G, Muller WE, Witchen HU, Pittrow D, Kirch W. Abuse and dependence potential for the non-benzodiazepine hypnotics zolpidem and zopiclone: a review of case reports and epidemiological data. Addiction. 2003;98(10):1371-8.