DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20174785

Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Acorus calamus (linn). roots in alloxan induced diabetes rat model

Prashanth D., Fazeel Zubair Ahmed

Abstract


Background: To evaluate hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of roots of Acorus calamus (AC) in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats and to compare with standard oral hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide.

Methods: A total of 54 rats were used for this study. The study was done in two phases. In phase I, oral glucose tolerance test was done in 4 groups at 0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after administration of AC in 3 different doses – 100, 150 and 200mg/kg to 3 different groups, with control being the fourth group. The dose of AC which caused maximal blood glucose lowering was selected for phase II. In phase II, rats were divided into 5 groups. First 2 groups were non diabetic groups which were given distilled water (DW) and AC respectively. Next 3 groups were alloxan induced diabetic groups which were given DW, AC and Glibencamide 0.5mg/kg po respectively. All drugs were given for 28 days and FBS was measured on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28th days.

Results: In phase I, both AC 150 and 200mg/kg lowered blood glucose but their effect was comparable and thus lower dose - 150mg/kg was selected for phase II. In phase II, among non-diabetic groups, AC 150 mg/kg produced significant hypoglycemia in comparison with control group. Among diabetic groups, both AC 150 mg/kg and glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg produced significant hypoglycemia in comparison with control group on all days. On days 3 and 7, hypoglycaemic action of AC 150mg/kg was not as much as Glibenclamide (p <0.05), but on days 14, 21 and 28, the hypoglycaemic action of AC 150 mg/kg was comparable to Glibenclamide 0.5mg/kg. (P >0.05).

Conclusions: AC 150mg/kg causes hypoglycemia in alloxan induced diabetic rats as well as nondiabetic rats.


Keywords


Acorus calamus, Alloxan, Anti diabetic, Diabetes, Glibenclamide

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Aster. Endocrine System. In: Robbins Basic Pathology. 9th Ed. Canada: Elsevier; 2013:739-750.

Powers AC. Diabetes Mellitus. In: DL K, E B, AS F, SL H, DL L, JL J, et al, editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 19th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2012:2399-2429.

Innes JA. editor. Diabetes mellitus. In: Davidson’s Essentials of Medicine. 2nd ed. China: Elsevier; 2016:381-411.

Powers AC, D’Alessio D. Endocrine Pancreas and Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC, editors. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw Hill; 2011:1237-1271.

Khan V, Najmi AK, Akhtar M, Aqil M, Mujeeb M, Pillai KK. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012 Jan 1;4(1):27.

Patel VS, Chitra V, Prasanna PL, Krishnaraju V. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 1;40(4):183.

Pandit S, Mukherjee PK, Ponnusankar S, Venkatesh M, Srikanth N. Metabolism mediated interaction of α-asarone and Acorus calamus with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Fitoterapia. 2011 Apr;82(3):369-74.

Kim H, Han TH, Lee SG. Anti-inflammatory activity of a water extract of Acorus calamus L. leaves on keratinocyte HaCaT cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Feb 25;122(1):149-56.

Sandeep D, Nair CKK. Protection of DNA and membrane from γ-radiation induced damage by the extract of Acorus calamus Linn.: An in vitro study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 May;29(3):302-7.

Divya G, Gajalakshmi S, Mythili S, Sathiavelu A. Pharmacological Activities of Acorus calamus: A Review. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res. 2011;1(4):57-64.

NA T. Effect of shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004 Nov 1;36(6):373.

Prisilla DH, Balamurugan R, Shah HR. Antidiabetic activity of mehanol extract of Acorus calamus in STZ induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Aug 28;941-6.

Sri H, Dewi RT, Darmawan A, Megawati. Development of antidiabetic active compounds from ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus L. rhizomes. Asian Trans Basic Appl Sci. 2012 Mar;2(1).

Si MM, Lou JS, Zhou CX, Shen JN, Wu HH, Yanga B. Insulin releasing and alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Acorus calamus in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):154-9.

Badole S, Patel N, Bodhankar S, Jain B, Bhardwaj S. Antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Cocculus hirsutus (L.) diels in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Indian J Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;38(1):49-53.

Gupta SK. Drug Screening Methods. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2009:589-613.

Manjunath S, Kugali S, Deodurg P. Effect of clonidine on blood glucose levels in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009;41(5):218.

Vogel HG. Methods to induce experimental diabetes mellitus. In: Drug discovery and evaluation. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2007:1327-1341.

Verma L, Khatri A, Kaushik B, Patil KU, Pawar SR. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010;42(4):224-8.

Jung HW, Jung JK, Ramalingam M, Yoon CH, Bae HS, Park YK. Anti-diabetic effect of Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb;44(1):97-102.