DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20150865

Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

Anand Kale, Yasmeen A. Maniyar

Abstract


Background: Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important and widely used medicinal plant. Though variously used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Homeopathy system of medicine in the case of ailments such as diarrhoea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as anti-helminthic, and external applications on tumors, the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. This study evaluates both the central and peripheral analgesic effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. infortunatum Linn. (EECI) in the experimental animals.

Methods: Acute toxicity test was done following the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. EECI (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg body weight [b.w.] p.o) was evaluated for central analgesic activity by the tail flick method and peripheral analgesic activity by the acetic acid (0.7%) induced writhing test, respectively. Using aspirin (300 mg/kg b.w. and 100 mg/kg b.w.) as the standard drug.

Results: EECI significantly decreased the number of writhing in writhing test at all the doses (p<0.01) and increased the reaction time in tail-flick method (p<0.01) at all the doses. EECI in the dosage of 400 mg/kg b.w. produced effects which was comparable with that of the standard drug aspirin (p<0.001) in writhing test (p<0.001) and tail flick method (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The study showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity of EECI which may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. C. infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of analgesic drug should be subjected to further research.


Keywords


Clerodendrum infortunatum, Analgesia, Writhing test, Tail flick method

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barrett K, Ganong’s BS. Review of Medical Physiology. 23rd Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw; 2010: 167-8.

Guyton A, Hall J. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 10th Edition. U.P, India: WB Saunders; 2001: 598-609.

Rajagopal MR. Pain – basic considerations. Indian J Anaesth. 2006;50(5):331-4.

Abdullahi MN, Ilyas N, Ibrahim H. Evaluation of phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of aqueous extract of the leaves of Microtrichia perotitii Dc (Asteraceae) in mice using hotplate method. Med Plant Res. 2013;3(5):37-43.

Woode E, Amoh-Barimah AK, Abotsi WK, Ainooson GK, Owusu G. Analgesic effects of stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn.) JJ De Wilde. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44(6):765-73.

Mishra SU, Murthy PN, Sambit P. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Indian medicinal plant Ziziphus xylopyrus stem barks in experimental animal models. Elixir Pharm. 2010;44:7265-70.

Bhattacharjee D, Das A. Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.: a review. J Adv Pharm Healthc Res. 2011;1(3):82-5.

Das S, Haldar PK, Pramanik G, Suresh RB. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Clerodendron infortunatum Linn. extract in rats. Glob J Pharmacol. 2010;4(1):48-50.

Das S, Haldar PK, Pramanik G, Suresh RB. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of Clerodendron infortunatum Linn. in Swiss albino mice. Thai J Pharm Sci. 2010;34:129-33.

Gowda G, Bhosle V. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice. Braz J Pharmacogn. 2012;22(3):649-56.

Maniyar Y, Bhixavatimath P. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2012;3(2):70-4.

Manjamalai A, Singh SS, Guruvayoorappa C, Grace VM. Analysis of phytochemical constituents and anti-microbial activity of some medicinal plants in Tamilnadu, India. Glob J Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;5(2):120-8.

De S, Dey YN, Ghosh AK. Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic evaluation of the different extracts of tuber of Amorphaphallus paeonifolius (Araceae). Int J Pharm Biomed Res. 2010;1(5):150-7.

Rajveer CH, Swarnalatha CH. Synthesis of 6-Bromooxo quinazoline derivatives and their pharmacological activities. Int J Chem Res. 2010;1(1):21-4.

Sharma US, Sharma UK, Sutar N, Shahnawaj A, Kumar KP. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of Andropogan muricatus root extract. J Pharm Res. 2010;3(7):1652-4.

Panthong A, Norkaew P, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Anantachoke N, Reutrakul V. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extract of gamboge from Garcinia hanburyi Hook f. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(2):335-40.

Indumathy S, Kavimani S. Analgesic activity of angiotensin antagonists. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;5(2):194-8.

Koster R, Anderson M, de Beer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed Proc. 1959;18:138.

Taber RI, Greenhouse DD, Rendell JK, Irwin S. Agonist and antagonist interactions of opioids on acetic acid-induced abdominal stretching in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1969;169(1):29-38.

Jayaraman R, Anitha T, Joshi VD. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effect of Acorus calamus roots in mice. Int J PhamTech Res. 2010;2(1):552-5.

Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. Analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(2):121-5.

Vijay P, Vijayvergia R. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Cissus quadrangularis. J Pharm Sci Technol. 2010;2(1):111-8.

Pal D, Sannigrahi S, Mazumder UK. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of saponin isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(9):743-7.

Schumacher GA, Goodell H, Hardy JD, Wolff HG. Uniformity of the pain threshold in man. Science. 1940;92(2379):110-2.

Wolff HG, Hardy JD, Goodell H. Studies on pain. Measurement of the effect of morphine, codeine, and other opiates on the pain threshold and an analysis of their relation to the pain experience. J Clin Invest. 1940;19(4):659-80.

Medhi B, Prakash A. Practical Manual of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 1st Edition. Chandigarh: Jaypee; 2010: 76-81.

Pourmotabbed A, Farshchi A, Ghiasi G, Khatabi PM. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Teucrium chamaedrys leaves aqueous extract in male rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2010;13(3):119-25.

Thirugnanasambantham P, Viswanathan S, Mythirayee C, Krishnamurty V, Ramachandran S, Kameswaran L. Analgesic activity of certain flavone derivatives: a structure-activity study. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;28(2):207-14.

Goji AD. A study of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves in rodents. Asian J Med Sci. 2010;2(6):244-7.

Farouk L, Laroubi A, Aboufatima R, Benharref A, Chait A. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of alkaloid extract of Peganum harmala L.: possible mechanisms involved. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;115(3):449-54.