Evaluation of prescribing pattern of antidiabetic drugs in medicine outpatient clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital

Vineet Kumar, Manmeet Topno, Manju Gari, Megha Bansal, Kishor Chakraborty, Shreya Lal, Manisha Varshney, Sumit Kumar Mahato


Background: Diabetes is rapidly gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetics currently diagnosed with the disease. Drug utilization studies are of paramount importance for the optimization of drug therapy and promote rational drug use among health care providers. The aim of this study was to investigate the drug utilization pattern in type-2 diabetic patients. The objective of the study was to analyse the prescribing pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in medicine outpatient clinic of tertiary care hospital, RIMS Ranchi for a period of 7 months. The data was analysed using WHO core indicators and Microsoft Excel 2013.

Results: The total number of encounters surveyed was 94. Avg no of drugs per prescription was 3.04. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was found to be 34.2%. Percentage of prescriptions was a) with antibiotics was 27.6%, b) with insulin was 14.89%, c) from essential drugs list 44.05%. Most common co morbid disease was found to be hypertension present in 27.6% cases.

Most commonly use drug was found to be metformin followed by glimepiride.

Conclusions: Implementation of WHO core prescribing indicators by the prescribers would help us to reduce the cost, to recognize and prevent potentially dangerous drug- drug interaction and antibiotic resistance.


Anti-diabetic drugs, Diabetes, Prescribing pattern, WHO core indicators

Full Text:



Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87:4-14.

Powers AC. Diabetes mellitus: In. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper, Hauser, Longo, Jameson The Mcgraw Hill Company. United States of America. 18th Ed. 2012;386-394.

Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1047-53.

Tognoni G, Liberati A, Pello L, Sasanclli E, Spagnoli A. Drug utilization studies and epidemiology. Rev Epifemiol. 1983;31:59-71.

Binu M, Sabbu R, Surendra K, Hiremath D. Assessment of Drug Prescribing Practices Using Who Prescribing Indicators In A Private Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. IRJIPS. 2013;1:26-31.

World Health Organization. How to investigate drug use in Health Facilities: selected drug use indicators. WHO/DAP/93.1. Geneva, 1993.

Upadhyay DK, Palaian S, Ravi Shanker P, Mishra P, Sah AK. Prescribing pattern in diabetic outpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2007;3:248-55.

Lisha JJ, Mohammed A, Jayadevan S, Jayakumary M, Das R, Jenny J, et al. Age and Gender-Based Utilization Pattern of Antidiabetic Drugs in Ajman, UAE. Mal J of Pha Sci. 2012;10(1):79-85.

Patel M, Patel IM, Patel YM, Rathi SK. A Hospital-based Observational Study of Type 2 Diabetic Subjects from Gujarat, India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011 Jun;29(3):265-72.

Sayed AHA, Churi S, Kumar RYS. Study of drug utilization pattern of antihyperglycemic agents in a South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar-Apr;44(2):210-4.

Ramesh R, Kumar SV, Gopinath S, Gavaskar B, Gandhiji G. Diabetic knowledge of rural community and drug utilization pattern in a tertiary care hosptial. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences. 2011;2(1):531-5.

Sutharson L, Hariharan RS, Vamsadhara C. Drug Utilization Study in Diabetology Outpatient Setting of a Tertiary Hospital. Indian J of Pharmacol. 2003;35:237-40.

Sudha V, Shukla P, Patidar P. Prescribing Pattern of Antidiabetic Drugs in Indore City Hospital Indian. J of Pha Sci. 2008;70(5):637-40.

Boccuzzi SJ, Wogen J, Fox J. Utilization of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in a Drug-Insured U.S. Population. Diabetes Care. 2004;24(8):1411-5.

Johnson JA, Pohar SL, Secnik K. Utilization of diabetes medication and cost of testing supplies in Saskatchewan, 2001. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:159.

Yurgin N, Secnik K, Lage MJ. Antidiabetic prescriptions and glycemic control in German patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective database study. Clin Ther. 2007;29(2):316-25.

Abdul GO. Jimoh, Sabir AA, Chika A, Sani Z. Pattern of Antidiabetic Drugs Use in a Diabetic Outpatient Clinic of a Tertiary Health Institution in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;11:241-5.

Patel B, Oza B, Patel KP, Malhotra SD, Patel VJ. Pattern of antidiabetic drugs use in type-2 diabetic patients in a medicine outpatient clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Int J of Basic & Clinical Pha. 2013;2(4):485-91.

Chiang CW, Chiu HF, Chens CY. Trends in the use of oral antidiabetic drugs by outpatients in Taiwan: 1997–2003. J of Cli Pha and Ther. 2006;31:73-82.

Al Khaja KA, Sequeira RP, Mathur VS. Prescribing patterns and therapeutic implications for diabetic hypertension in Bahrain. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35(11):1350-9.

CDA. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. Canadian Diabetes Association, 2008. Available at:

IDF. Clinical guidelines task force: Global guideline for type 2 diabetes. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, 2005. Available at:

NIHCE. Type 2 diabetes: The management in primary and secondary care (update). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2010.