Drug utilization pattern of antimicrobial drugs in intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital attached with a medical college

Rutvij Hedamba, Chintan Doshi, Nishita H. Darji, Bansari Patel, Varsha Kumari, Hiren R. Trivedi


Background: A number of antimicrobial drugs are prescribed to the patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Drug utilization research was defined by WHO as the study of marketing, distribution, prescription, and use of drugs in a society, with special emphasis on the resulting medical, social and economic consequences. There is lack of information about the use of antimicrobial agents in the ICU at GGGH till date. So we decided to conduct this type of study.

Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out for 12 months. Patients of age >18 of both sexes who was admitted in ICU were included in the study while pregnant and lactating women excluded. The prescribing pattern was analyzed by using World Health Organization basic drug indicators. 

Results: Among 611 patients, 373 (61.04%) were male and 238 (38.95%) were female. The most common emergency was post-operative 204 (33.38%).The most common prescribed antimicrobial drug group and drug was antiamoebic drugs and metronidazole respectively in 437 (24.04%) out of total drugs prescribed. The numbers of antimicrobial drugs prescribed per patient were 2.97. 68% drugs were prescribed from WHO and national EML list. Total 57.26% drugs were prescribed by generic name. Average antimicrobial drug cost per patient was 1805.34 rs.

Conclusions: Despite of limitations of present study it gives important conclusion about how antimicrobial drugs are used in GGGH ICU. This information can be used for improvement of current treatment strategies.


Drug utilization, Antimicrobial drugs, Prescribing pattern, Cost analysis

Full Text:



Lee D, Bergmen U. Studies of utilization. In: Strom BC, editor. Pharmacoepidemiology. 1st ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone. 1989:259-73.

Introduction to drug utilization research by World Health Organization. archive/publications/drug_utilization_research.pdf. Accessed on 2014 Sep10.

Gaye U, Schrwartz W. Antimicrobial stewardship programme on hospital acquired infections. Am J Med. 2005;113:34-9.

Marin H, Kunches LM, Lichtenberg DA. Comparison of infections in different ICUs within the same hospital. Crit Care Med. 2005;43(2):122-7.

Asem A, Barchitta M Cipresso R, Giaquinta L. Romeo M, Denaro C. Pseudomonas aeruginosa carriage, colonization, and infection in ICU patients. Intensive Care Med. 1996;33:1155-61.

Aysen B, Phillips L, Monnet D. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe: results of the European prevalence of infection in intensive care (EPIC) study. JAMA. 2006;274:639-64.

Kanhai KK. Non-invasive respiratory monitoring in surgical intensive care. 2001;3:112-34.

Gaash B. Irrational use of antimicrobials. Intensive Care Med. 2008;13:342-6.

Daniel P, Nyquist AC, Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Sande MA. Antibiotic prescribing for children with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis. JAMA. 2002;279:875-7.

Naqvi M, Chiranjeevi U, Shobha J. Prescription patterns of antibiotics in acute medical care unit of a tertiary care hospital in India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3:673-9.

Vandana A, Sanjaykumar B. Study of prescribing pattern of antimicrobial agents in medicine intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in central India. JAPI. 2012;60:20-3.

Lisha J, Padmini D, Jenny J, Shoba G. Drug utilization study of antimicrobial agents in medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Asian journal of pharmaceutical and clinical research. 2011;4:81-4.

Williams A, Mathai AS, Phillips AS. Antibiotic prescription patterns at admission into tertiary level intensive care unit in Northern India. J pharm Bioall Sci. 2011;3:531-6.

Mahajan B, Kaushal S, Chopra S. A drug utilization study of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) in the intensive care units (ICUs) at medical college hospital of North India. J K sci. 2013;15:129-32.

Gangwar A, Kumar N, Kothiyal P. Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in an intensive care unit. The pharma innovation. 2012;1:68-72.

John LJ, Devi P John P, Guido S. Drug utilization study of antimicrobial agents in medical intensive care unit. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2011;4(2):81-4.

Saleh NA, Purya M, Hemadri M. Generic names or trade names prescribing practices of junior doctors. Kuwait Med J. 2001;33(2):153-5.

Bansal D, Mangla S, Undela K, Gudala K, D'Cruz S, Sachdev A, Tiwari P. Measurement of adult antimicrobial drug use in tertiary care hospital using defined daily dose and days of therapy. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2014;76:211-7.

WHO. The world medicine situation. Geneva: WHO press, World Health Organization; 2004:1-25 Accessed on 30th March 2015.