DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20173747

Evaluation of prescribing patterns of medical practitioners in the state of Goa, India

Greeshma Upendra, Sushama A. Bhounsule

Abstract


Background: According to WHO, worldwide more than 50% of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed, or sold inappropriately, while 50% of patients fail to take them correctly. Evaluating the prescribing patterns of the medical practitioners will throw light on the common types of irrational practices such as inappropriate use of antimicrobials, polypharmacy, over-use of injections, failure to prescribe according to clinical guidelines.

Methods: 600 prescriptions prescribed by medical practitioners from March to April 2016 were analyzed using WHO prescribing indicators.

Results: Out of the 1900 drugs prescribed, average number of drugs per prescription was 3.17. Total number of drugs prescribed by generic name was 11 (0.58%). An antibiotic was prescribed in 119 patients (19.83%). An injection was prescribed in 23 patients (3.8%). 567 drugs prescribed were from the essential drug list of India (29.8%).

Conclusions: Polypharmacy increases the risk of drug interactions, treatment cost, decreases the patient’s compliance. Prescribing medicines by generic name avoids the confusion. By adhering to the national essential list of medicine, drugs will be available to the patients at all times and be cheaper.


Keywords


National list of essential medicine, Generic name, Prescribing pattern, Prescribing indicators, Polypharmacy, Rational drug use

Full Text:

PDF

References


The rational use of drugs, Report of the Conference of Experts, Nairobi, November; 1985:25-29. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s17054e/s17054e.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2017.

WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicines - Promoting rational use of medicines: core components. September 2002. World Health Organization Geneva. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/h3011e/h3011e.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2017.

Tripathy KD. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. 7thEdition. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.; 2013:4.

How to investigate drug use in health facilities: selected drug use indicators, WHO; 1993:1-92. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js2289e. Accessed 20 may 2017.

Isah AO, Ross-Degnan D, Quick J, Laing R, Mabadeje AFB, The development of standard values for the WHO drug use prescribing indicators. Available at: http://archives.who.int/icium/icium1997/posters/1a2_txt.html. Accessed 20 May 2017.

Geetha P, Vijayalakshmi P, Tilak S, Maheswaran A, Narayanan N. Prescription analysis to evaluate the rational use of drugs by using who health care indicators. Int. J. Multidiscip. Res. Dev. 2015 May;2(5):358-60.

Prasad SN, Jagadeesh K, Revankar S. Study of Rationality Of Prescriptions & Analysis Of Drugs Prescribed Among In-Patients Of Mcgann Teaching Hospital, S.I.M.S, Shimoga, Karnataka, India. IOSR-JDMS. 2014 July;13(7):30-5.

Mittal N, Mittal R, Singh I, Shafiq N, Malhotra S. Drug Utilisation Research in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2014;76(4):308-14.

Lalan BK, Hiray RS, Ghongane BB. Drug prescription pattern of outpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Maharashtra. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2012 July;3(3):225-9.

Ahsan M, Shaifali I, Mallick AK, Singh HK, Verma S, Shekhar A. Prescription auditing based on World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators in a teaching hospital in North India. Int J Med Res Rev. 2016;4(10):1847-52.

Gupta R, Marko JL. Drug prescription pattern of outpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in central India. Iint. J. Bioassays, 2014;3(12):3566-8.

Khan IN, Chandrakapure AR, Mateenuddin M, Arif S, Giri S, Faheem M. Prescription pattern in OPD hospital in a rural area of Jalna Dist, Maharashtra, India, Med Pulse -International Medical Journal. 2014 April;1(4):165-7.

Gangopadhyay T, Mandal A, Mandal S, Basu B, Maiti T, Das A, et al. Drug utilization study from a government sponsored pharmacy in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural West Bengal: A cross-sectional study. Int J Health Allied Sci. 2016;5(3):138-42.

Pathak A, Gupta VK, Maurya A, Kumar A, Singh A. Assessment of drug prescribing pattern using WHO indicators inhospitalized patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital in rural area of India. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Jun;5(3):651-5.

Atif M, Azeem M, Sarwar MR, Shahid S, Javaid S, Ikram H, et al. WHO/INRUD prescribing indicators and prescribing trends of antibiotics in the Accident and Emergency Department of Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Pakistan. Springer Plus. 2016;5:1928.

Sapkota S, Pudasaini N, Singh C, Sagar GC. Drug prescribing pattern and prescription error in elderly: a retrospective study of inpatient record, Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2011;4(3):129-32.

Demeke B, Molla F, Assen A, Melkam W, Abrha S, Masresha B, et al. Evaluation of drugs utilization pattern using who prescribing indicators in ayder referral hospital, Northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research. 2015 Feb;6(2):343-7.

Ferreira MB, Heineck I, Flores LM, Camargo AL, Dal Pizzol TD, Torres IL, et al. Rational use of medicines: prescribing indicators at different levels of health care. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013 Jun;49(2):329-40.

Wang H, Li N, Zhu H, Xu S, Lu H, Feng Z, et al. Prescription Pattern and Its Influencing Factors in Chinese County Hospitals: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. Plos One. 2013 May;8(5):e63225.

Guidance on international nonproprietary names (INN) for pharmaceutical substances, WHO; 1997. Available at: www.who.int/medicines/services/inn/innguidance/en. Accessed 20 May 2017.

Desalegn AA. Assessment of drug use pattern using WHO prescribing indicators at Hawassa University teaching and referral hospital, South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Research. 2013;13:170.

Mahmoud RK, Kheder SI, Ali HM. Prescribing rationality in Khartoum state, Sudan: An update. Sudan Med Monit. 2014 April;9(2):61-6.

Tamuno I, Fadare JO. Drug Prescription Pattern in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Trop J Pharm Res. 2012 February;11(1):146-52.

Menik HL, Isuru AI, Sewwandi S. A survey: Precepts and practices in drug use indicators at Government Healthcare Facilities: A Hospital-based prospective analysis. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2011 Jan-Mar;3(1):165-9.

Vooss AT, Diefenthaeler HS. Evaluation of prescription indicators established by the WHO in Getúlio Vargas- RS. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011 April/June;47(2):385-90.

Atif M, Sarwar MR, Azeem M, Umer D, Rauf A, Rasool A, et al. Assessment of WHO/INRUD core drug use indicators in two tertiary care hospitals of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. 2016;9:27.

Kar SS, Pradhan HS, Mohanta GP. Concept of Essential Medicines and Rational Use in Public Health. Indian J Community Med. 2010 Jan;35(1):10-3.