Protective effects of Buchholzia coriacea seeds extract and fractions on blood glucose and hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats


  • Theophine Chinwuba Akunne Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Laura C. Ilogu Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Bonaventure C. Obi Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Peter A. Akah Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria



Antihyperglycemia, Buchholzia coriacea, Diabetic rats and quantitative phytochemicals, Hypolipidemia


Background: The Buchholzia coriacea seeds (Capparaceae) are used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of hyperglycemia. Our aim, therefore, is to evaluate antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of extract and fractions of Bulcholzia coriacea seeds.

Methods: The cut, dried and pulverized seeds were extracted with a mixture of methanol-dichloromethane (1:1) which yielded the crude extract, MDE. The MDE was fractionated using bioactive guided procedure and yielded hexane fraction (HF), ethylacetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF). Alloxan-induced diabetes, normoglycemic test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were the antidiabetic models employed, while hypolipidemic study was performed using standard assay kits to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). Acute toxicity test of the extract was performed using Lorke’s method while qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were also performed using standard procedures.

Results: The results showed an oral median lethality dose (LD50) greater than 5000mg/kg. The extract and fractions showed significant antihyperglycemic effect comparable and in synergy to metformin, a standard agent. The extract (200mg/kg) showed the highest percentage blood glucose reduction (PBGR) of 52.89% while ethylacetate fraction (EF, 400mg/kg) showed PBGR of 50.84%. Also, the MDE and hexane fraction (HF) showed a significant reduction of TC, TG and LDL and related increase in HDL-C levels in diabetic treated rats.

Conclusions: The extract and the fractions of Buchholzia coriacea seeds possess antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects and showed same mechanism of action as metformin, thus providing scientific rationale for its folkloric use.


Guariguata L, Whiting DR, Hambleton I, Beagley J, Linnenkamp U, Shaw JE. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Research and Clinical Pratice 2014;103(2):137-49.

Sharma VK, Kumar S, Patel HJ, Hugar S. Hypoglycemic activity of Ficus glomerata in alloxan induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2010;1(2):18-22.

IDF. International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 6th Edition, Brussels, Belgium; 2013. Available at:

Peer N, Kengne AP, Motala AA, Mbanya JC. Diabetes in the African region: an update. Diabetes Research and Clinical Pratice. 2014;103(2):197-205.

Patel DK, Kumar R, Laloo D, Hemalatha S. Evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant activities of the different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linn.) F. Muall. (Violacea). Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(5):412-20.

Kavishankar GB, Lakshanidevi N, Marthy SM. Diabetes and medicinal plants-A review. Int J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2011;2(3):65-80.

Jung M, Park M, Lee HC, Kang YH, Kang ES, Kim SK. Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(10):1203-18.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012;81:81-100.

Ajayeoba EO, Onocha Pa, Nwozo SO, Sama W. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity evaluation of Buchholzia coriacea stem bark. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(7-8):706-9.

Nweze NE, Asuzu IU. Antihelminthic effect of Buchholzia coriacea seeds. Niger Vet J. 2006;27(2):60-5.

Ezekiel OO, Onyeoziri NF. Preliminary studies on the antimicrobial properties of Buchholzia coriacea. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(3):472-4.

Mbata TI, Duru CM, Onwumelu HA. Antibacterial activity of crude seed extracts of Buchholzia coriacea E.on some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Development Biology and Tissue Engineering. 2009;1(1):001-5.

Okoye TC, Akah PA, Ilogu CL, Ezike AC, Onyeto CA. Anti-diabetic effects of the methanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea and its synergistic effects with metformin. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;2(12):32-6.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 2nd Edition. London, Chapman and Hall; 1988:55-56.

Trease GE, Evans WC. Test book of Pharmacognosy, 11th ed. Brailliare Tindall and Macmillian Publishers, London; 1989:176-180.

Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the extract and some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria. Glob J Pure Appl Sci. 2001;8:203-8.

Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol. 1983;54:272-89.

El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Abou El-Naga NI. Biochemical study on hehypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005;43:57-63.

Etuk EU. Animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2010;1(2):130-4.

Muller PH, Schmulling RM, Eggstein M. A fully enzymatic triglyceride determination. J. Clin. Chem. 1977;15:457-504.

Bailey CJ. Biguanides and NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:755-72.

Ceriello A. Postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetes complications; is it time to treat? Diabetes. 2005;54:1-7.

Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi S. Antihyperglycemic effects of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(3):461-70.

Edduoks M, Jouad H, Maghrani M, Lemhadri A, Burcellin R. Inhibition of endogenous glucose production accounts for hypoglycaemic effect of Spergularia purpurea in streptozotocin mice. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:594-9.

Ahmed AM. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Saudi Med J. 2000;21(11):1034-7.

Mirinova MA, Klein RL, Virella GT, Lopes MF. Anti modified LDL antibodies, LDL-containing immune complexes and susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000;49:1033-49.

Okoli CO, Ibiam AF, Ezike AC, Akah PA, Okoye TC. Evaluation of antidiabetic potentials of Phyllantus niruri in alloxan diabetic rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;9(2):248-59.

Krishnakumar K, Auhusti KT, Viyammamal PL. Hypolipdemic effect of Solacia obloga wall root bark in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Med Sci. 2000;28:65b-67.

Rajkumar L, Srinivasa N, Balasubramanian K, Govindarajulu P. Increased degradation of dermal collagen in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29(11):1081-3.

Kobayashi K, Saito Y, Nakazuwa I, Yoshizaki F. Screening of crude drugs for influence on amylase activity and postprandial blood glucose in mouse plasma. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2000;23:1250-3.

Fernandez SP, Wasowki C, Loscalzo LM, Granger RE, Johnston GA, Paladini AC, et al. Central nervous system depressant action of flavonoid glycosides. European J. Pharmacol. 2006;539(3):168-76.




How to Cite

Akunne, T. C., Ilogu, L. C., Obi, B. C., & Akah, P. A. (2017). Protective effects of Buchholzia coriacea seeds extract and fractions on blood glucose and hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 6(8), 1856–1864.



Original Research Articles