DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20172747

A study of the neuroprotective role of Punica granatum and rosuvastatin in scopolamine induced cognitive deficit in rats

Fariha Fatima, Dilshad A. Rizvi, Afroz Abidi, Ali Ahmad, Pooja Shukla, Fardan Qadeer, Karan Srivastava

Abstract


Background: The present work has been planned to find out the effect of Punica granatum and Rosuvastatin on learning and memory in Scopolamine induced cognitive deficits in rats. Scopolamine being an anticholinergic agent is used fervently in experimental models for memory deficits and has been widely implicated for the screening of cognitive dysfunction. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) has shown to suppress tumor neuronal cells, hence it can be a potential agent in providing neuroprotection for preventing the development and progression of AD. There are conflicting reports indicating the role of statins as a neuroprotective agent. This contradiction led us to investigate the effect of the role of Rosuvastatin on memory. The test agents were further compared to the standard treatment group acetylcholinesterase inhibitor i.e. Donepezil.

Methods: Male wistar rats 150-200gms were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Amnesia was induced by scopolamine 3mg/kg ip at day 5 in all the groups. Group1 (amnesic control) given distilled water; group 2(standard treatment i.e. Donepezil 0.5mg/kg orally); group 3(Rosuvastatin group10mg/kg orally); group 4 (Punica granatum juice 500mg/kg orally) The methods for validating cognition deficits were behavioural tests like Cook’s pole response and Passive Avoidance response.

Results: It was evident from our research that the Punica granatum juice and Rosuvastatin effectively antagonized the scopolamine induced cognitive impairment in the paradigms studied. The neuroprotective effect of Punica granatum juice was better as compared to the Rosuvastatin group and the effects of the former were comparable with the standard treatment i.e. Donepezil group.

Conclusions: Punica granatum has a remarkable protective role in memory function, learning, cognition and behavior in Scopolamine induced amnesia model of Alzheimer’s disease which was better than Rosuvastatin treatment.


Keywords


Amnesia, Cognition, Cook’s pole apparatus, Punica granatum, Passive avoidance response apparatus, Scopolamine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Demetrius LA, Magistretti PJ, Pellerin. Alzheimer’s disease. The amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect. Front Physiol. Jan 2014;5:522.

Campos C. Treatment of Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A psychopharmacological review. Psychiatr Danub. 2016 Mar;28(1):2-12.

Danysz W, Parsons CG. Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid, glutamate, NMDA receptors and memantine--searching for the connections. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Sep;167(2):324-52.

Can Z. Natural Compounds That Modulate BACE1-processing of Amyloid-beta Precursor Protein in Alzheimer’s disease. Discov Med. 2012 Sep;14(76):189-97.

Johannsen P. Long-term cholinesterase inhibitor treatment of Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drugs. 2004;18(12):757-68.

McGleenon BM, Dynan KB, Passmore AP. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999 Oct 1;48:471-80.

Bierer LM, Haroutunian V, Gabriel S. Neurochemical correlates of dementia severity in Alzheimer’s disease: relative importance of the cholinergic deficits. Journal of Neurochemistry. 1995;64(2):749-60.

Ginsberg J, Ramakrishnan R, Desnick RJ. Suppression of apolipoprotein B production during treatment of cholesteryl ester storage disease with lovastatin. Implications for regulation of apolipoprotein B synthesis. J. Clin. Investig. 1987;80:1692-7.

Grundy SM. Consensus statement: role of therapy with “statins” in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. The American J of Car. 1998 Feb 26;81(4):1B-6B.

Lad V, Frawley D, Santa Fe NM. The Yoga of Herbs. Lotus Press; 1986:135-136.

Lansky EP, Newman RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109:177-206.

Jurenka JS. Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):128-44.

Jimenez DR, Ramazanov A, Sikorski S, Ramazanov Z, Chkhikvishvili I. A new method of standartization of health-promoting pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract. Georgian medical news. 2006 Nov(140):70-7.

Forouzanfar F, Goli A, Asadpour E, Ghorbani A, Sadeghnia HR. Protective effect of Punica granatum L. against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013 Jul 7; 2013.

Maria T, Kotetarova G, Kostadinova II. Effect of Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin on Learning and Memory in Rats with Diazepam-Induced Amnesia. Folia Med. 2013;55(2):58-65.

Ogura H, Kosasa T, Araki S, Yamanishi Y. Pharmacological properties of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept), a drug for Alzheimer's disease. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2000 Jan;115(1):45-51.

Agrawal R, Tyagi E, Saxena G, Nath C. Cholinergic influence on memory stages: A study on scopolamine amnesic mice. IJP. 2009;41(4):192-6.

Webster S, Bachstetter A, Nelson P, Schmitt F, Van Eldik L. Using mice to model Alzheimer's dementia: an overview of the clinical disease and the preclinical behavioral changes in 10 mouse models. Front Genet. 2014:5.

Malabade R, Taranalli A. Procera C. A potential cognition enhancer in scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock-induced amnesia in rats. Indian J of Phar. 2015;47(4):419.

Desai KM, Bhavsar VH, Dhumal VR, Kelkar VV. Disruptive effects of repeated electroconvulsive shock on retention of learned active avoidance is attenuated by carbamazepine. IRCS Med Sci. 1983;11:516-7.

Jick H, Zornberg GL, Jick SS, Seshadri S, Drachman DA. Statins and the risk of dementia. Lancet. 2000;356:1627-31.

Tran HN. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed linolenic acid isomers: concentration-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor activity. Endocr Res. 2010 Jan;35(1):1-16.

Courtney C, Farrell D, Gray R. Long-term donepezil treatment in 565 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD2000): randomised double-blind trial. The Lancet. 2004;363(9427):2105-15.

Albert M, DeKosky ST, Dickson D, Dubois B, Feldman H, Fox NC, et al. The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: report of the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association workgroup. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7(3):270-9.