DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20172746

Effect of various cardiovascular risk factors on oxidative stress markers in post menopausal women

Subrat Kumar Tripathy, Pramila Kumari Mishra

Abstract


Background: The objectives was to study the association between oxidative stress and various cardiovascular risk factors individually and also there cumulative effect in post-menopausal women.

Methods: 50 postmenopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors like hyperglycemia, hypertension, high Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidaemia were selected and burden of various cardiovascular risk factors in them is noted and also compared with 50 age matched apparently healthy post menopausal controls. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA), vitaminE and vitamin C were taken to assess oxidative stress status. ANOVA was applied to find the effect of individual risk factor on oxidative stress and Student’s t-test was applied to compare between cases with single risk factors and multiple risk factors.

Results: It was found that though all cardiovascular risk factors increase oxidative stress significantly but none of them has significant association in comparison to others (F value 0.37, 0.88 and 0.62 for MDA, vitamin E and C respectively). However, MDA value found in cases with multiple risk factors when compared with that of cases with single risk factor was found to be statistically significant (P <0.001). Similarly, the decrease in vitamin E in cases with multiple risk factors when compared with single risk factor cases was found to be significant. (P <0.01) and vitamin C in women with multiple risk factors was decreased in comparison to women with a single risk factor and was significant (P <0.001).

Conclusions: The study shows that all the risk factors are equally responsible for increase in oxidative stress and multiple risk factors increase the oxidative stress significantly in comparison to any single risk factor.


Keywords


Menopause, MDA, Oxidative stress, Vitamin C, Vitamin E

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kumar P, Malhotra N, Menopause, Jeffcoates principle of Gynaecology, 7th Ed. 2008;862-883.

Morse CA, Smith A, Dennerstein L, Green A, Hopper J, Burger H. The treatment-seeking woman at menopause. Maturitas. 1994 Mar 1;18(3):161-73.

The American heart association, Cardiovascular disease statistics. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org.2003.

Fritz MA, Speroff L. Menopause and perimenopausal transition. In Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 8th Ed., 2011:673-748.

Wing RR, Matthews KA, Kuller LH, Meilahn EN, Plantinga PL. Weight gain at the time of menopause: Arch. Intern. Med. 1991 151/1 (97-102). Maturitas. 1991 Oct 1;13(4):339-40.

Guetta V, Cannon RO. Cardiovascular effects of estrogen and lipid-lowering therapies in postmenopausal women. Circulation. 1996 May 15;93(10):1928-37.

Leibovitz BE, Siegel BV. Aspects of free radical reactions in biological systems: aging. J of Gero. 1980 Jan 1;35(1):45-56.

Quinn MT, Parthasarathy S, Fong LG, Steinberg D. oxidatively modified low density lipoproteins: A potential role in recruitment and retention of monocyte/macrophages during athrerogenesis. Proc Natl Acad sci USA. 1987;84:2995-8.

Esterbauer H, Cheeseman K. Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods Enzymol. 1990;186:407-21.

Peter A, Mayes. Structure and function of lipid soluble vitamins. Harper Biochemistry; 25th Edi. 2009:642-652.

Roche Cobas Integra 400 Method Manual, 8th Edition; 2013:01.

Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by new colorimetric method. Clin. Chim. Acta. 1978;90:37-43.

Roe. Plasma Vitamin C by 2-4 dinitrophenyl hydrazone method, Harold Varley; Practical Clinical Biuochemistry. 4th Ed; 1961:635.

Baker and Frank. Varleys Practical Clinical Biochemistry, 6th Ed; 1968:902.

Ko GT, Chan JC, Woo J, Lau EM, Yeung VT, Chow CC, et al. The effect of age on cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women. Int J of Car. 1997 Oct 10;61(3):221-7.

Bharadwaj JA, Kendurkar SM, Vaidya PR. Age and symptomatology of menopause in Indian women. J Postgrad Med. 1983;29:218.

India-based Institute for Social and Economic Change, London's Times reports, 28. January 2007;14:08.

Fickinson F, Castillo T, Vales, Uc L. International J of Antropology, 1995;10(1):21-8.

Hidayet NM, Sharaf SA, Aref SR, Tawfik TA, Moubarak II. Correlates of age at natural menopause: a community-based study in Alexandria. 1999;5(2):307-19.

George L. King and Mary R. Loeken. J of Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Oct, 2004;122(4):333-8.

Freitas JP, Filipe PM, Rodrigo FG. Lipid peroxidation in type 2 normolipidemic diabetic patients; Diabetes Res Cli Pract. 1997 May;36(2):71-5.

Pialoux V, Brown AD, Leigh R, Friedenreich CM, Poulin MJ. Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on vascular regulation and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Hypertension. 2009 Nov 1;54(5):1014-20.

Perticone F, Ceravolo R, Candigliota M, Ventura G, Iacopino S, Sinopoli F, et al. Obesity and body fat distribution induce endothelial dysfunction by oxidative stress: protective effect of vitamin C. Diabetes. 2001;50:159-65.

Matthews KA, Meilahn E, Kuller LH, Kelsey SF, Caggiula AW, Wing RR. Menopause and risk factors for coronary heart disease. New England J of Med. 1989 Sep 7;321(10):641-6.

Nagyova A, Mongiellova V, Krivosikova Z, Blazicek P, Spustova V, Gajdos M, et al. Physiological Research J. 2002;51(5):457-64.

Torun M, Avci N, Yardim S. Serum levels of vitamin E in relation to cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1995;20:335-40.

Frei B, England L, Ames BN. Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989;86:6377-81.

Rumley AG, Woodward M, Rumley A, Rumley J, Lowe GDO. Plasma lipid peroxides: relationships to cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease, QJM. 2004;97(12):809-16.

NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel. Clinical Guidelines on Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 1998.