DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20172741

Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from patients of respiratory tract infection in a tertiary care hospital of Central India

Shilpi Dhakre, Pooja Reddy, Mohit Kulmi, Chhaya Goyal

Abstract


Background: Respiratory tract infections are one of the commonest types of infections affecting the Indian population and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. To deal with multidrug resistance one should be armed with region specific data about the susceptibility patterns of antimicrobials. This study was planned to identify the common pathogens responsible for the respiratory tract infection and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns.

Methods: Smears were prepared from the specimens and gram stains of all clinical samples were done. The organisms were grown on various media and identified according to the standard procedures. The susceptibility patterns of the bacterial pathogens were determined following the panel of antimicrobial agents. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis.

Results: Out of 513 samples 471 samples were further processed. Klebsiella (30.42%) was found to be commonest pathogen followed by Pseudomonas (28.36%). Ampicillin and piperacillin /tazobactam combination were found to be highly efficient against Pseudomonas (83% and 58.8% respectively), E. coli (68% and 50.7% respectively), and Klebsiella (43% and 30.3% respectively). 

Conclusions: In our study, we found penicillins as the most efficacious antimicrobials to treat respiratory pathogens. The study reveals that the antibiotic susceptibility pattern varies across regions. The prescription of a right antibiotic, for a right patient will help to minimize the menace of emergence of antimicrobial resistance.


Keywords


Drug resistance, Respiratory tract infections, Susceptibility pattern

Full Text:

PDF

References


Goel K, Ahmad S, Agarwal G, Goel P, Kumar V. A Cross Sectional Study on Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in Under-Five Children of Meerut District, India, J Community Med Health Educ 2:176.

Donowitz GR, Mandell GL. Acute pneumonia. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds): Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York; 1998:619-637.

Andre M, Odenholt I, Schwan A, Axelsson I, Eriksson M, Hoffman M, et al. Upper respiratory tract infections in general practice: diagnosis, antibiotic prescribing, duration of symptoms and use of diagnostic tests. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:880-6.

Molstad S. Reduction in antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections is needed! Scand J Prim Health Care. 2003;21:196-8.

Hughes JM. Epidemiology and prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. In: Remington A, Swartz C (eds): Current clinical topics in infectious diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York; 1988:241-259.

Jonas M, Cunha BA. Bacteremic Escherichia coli pneumonia. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1982;142:2157-9.

Pennington JE. Community-acquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis. In: Pennington JE (Ed): Respiratory infections: diagnosis and management. Raven Press, New York; 1988:159-170.

Pennington JE. Hospital-acquired pneumonia. In: Pennington JE (ed): Respiratory infections: diagnosis and management. Raven Press, New York; 1988:171-186.

Dean AD, Dean BJ, Burton AH, Dicker RC. Epi-infoversion 5: a word processing database and statiostics programme for epidemiology on micro-computers. VSD. Inc stone mountain Ga,1990.

Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE. Trends in antimicrobial drug development: Implications for the future. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2004;38:1279-86.

Jenkins SG, Schuetz AN. Current Concepts in Laboratory Testing to Guide Antimicrobial Therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Mar;87(3):290-308.

Neill AM, Martin IR, Weir R, Anderson R, Chereshsky A, Epton MJ, et al. Community acquired pneumonia: aetiology and usefulness of severity criteria on admission. Thorax. 1996 Oct 1;51(10):1010-6.

Laing R, Slater W, Coles C, Chambers S, Frampton C, Jackson R, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in Christchurch and Waikato 1999-2000: microbiology and epidemiology. The New Zealand Medical Journal. 2001 Nov;114(1143):488-92.

Anevlavis S, Petroglou N, Tzavaras A, Maltezos E, Pneumatikos I, Froudarakis M, et al. A prospective study of the diagnostic utility of sputum Gram stain in pneumonia. Journal of Infection. 2009 Aug 31;59(2):83-9.

Ahmed SM, Jakribettu RP, Meletath SK. Lower respiratory tract infections (LTRIs): An insight into the prevalence and the antibiogram of the gram negative, respiratory, bacterial agents. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2013 Feb;7(2):253.

Siddalingappa CM, Kalpana L, Puli S, Vasudha TK, Acharya A. Sensitivity pattern of bacteria causing respiratory tract infections in a tertiary care centre. International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, September-October 2013;2(5):590-5.

Sharma S, Srivastava P, Kumar A. Respiratory Tract Infection (RTI) and its Treatment. Sch. J. App. Med. Sci. 2015;3(8E):3118-22.

Akingbade OA, Ogiogwa JI, Okerentugba PO, Innocent-Adiele HC, Onoh CC, Nwanze JC, et al. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Agents Involved in lower respiratory tract infections in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, Report and Opinion. 2012;4(5):25-30.

Dwarikadhish K, Mudit M, Borade DM, Swami OC. Corresponding author. Ampicillin: Rise Fall and Resurgence. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 May;8(5):ME01-3.

Pathmanathan SG, Samat NA, Mohamed R. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Malaysian Hospital, Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;16(2):27.

Jethwani U, Shah N, Trivedi P. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from the Lower Respiratory Tract of Ventilated Patients in the Intensive Care Unit, Indian Medical Gazette - May 2014.

Chopra I, Marilyn R. Tetracycline Antibiotics: Mode of Action, Applications, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Bacterial Resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001 Jun;65(2):232-60.

Fernández M, Conde S, Torre AJDL, Molina-Santiago C, Ramos J, Duqueb E. Mechanisms of Resistance to Chloramphenicol in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Feb;56(2):1001-9.

Victor O, Stanley O. Prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial agents involved in lower respiratory tract infections, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. April 2011;5(2):774-81.

Hackel M, Hawker S, Bouchillon SM, Dowzicky. monitoring the activity of linezolid against north american Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae from respiratory tract sources, T.E.S.T 2004-2009.

Joseph NM, Sistla S, Dutta TK, Badhe AS, Rasitha D, Parija SC. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in India: role of multi-drug resistant pathogens, J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4(4):218-25.