Use of anti-snake venom and clinical outcomes in snake envenomation: a prospective observational study

Shraddha M. Pore, Arvind V. Kumbhar, Ruchi D. Shah, Praveeenkumar T. Patil, Sachin M. Patankar, Rohit N. Herekar, Sunita J. Ramanand


Background: The only effective measure to prevent or reverse most of the manifestations of venomous snake-bite is timely administration of antisnake venom (ASV) with or without adjunctive treatment as necessary in each case. But recently several concerns have been raised with regard to use of polyvalent ASV. Hence the present study was conducted to assess use of ASV, early adverse reactions to ASV, adjunctive treatment and clinical outcomes in snake-bite patients, which would help to identify areas of problem and provide basis for planning strategies to increase rational use of drugs.

Methods: It was a prospective observational study approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. All indoor patients with systemic manifestations of snake envenomation were included in the study. All participants gave written informed consent. Data was obtained prospectively using a structured case record form. Descriptive statistics was used to express the results.

Results: Among 52 patients, snake-bite predominantly affected males (59.62%) than females (40.38%). The most common site of snake-bite was lower limb (65.38%). The main indication for ASV administration was vasculotoxic snake-bite (59.62%). Mean dose of ASV use was 18.21±15.51 vials. Mortality was seen in one patient. Majority of patients (28/52, 53.85%) received ASV in the range of 1-10 vials for the management of snake-bite.

Conclusions: The use and dose of ASV was appropriate in vasculotoxic snake-bite while few neurotoxic snake-bite patients needed higher than recommended dose. 


Adverse drug reactions, Anti snake venom, Prophylactic premedication, Snake bite, Systemic envenomation

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