DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20171079

Prevalence of biofilm controlling ica genes of Staphylococcus epidermidis detected in healthy skin, blood samples from septicaemia patients and chronic wounds

Malik Asif Hussain, Irani Udeshika Rathnayake, Flavia Huygens

Abstract


Background: The role of microbes in the persistence of chronic wounds is very important. Biofilm mode of bacterial growth has been found to be clinically very important in various types of infections. Bacterial growth in the form of biofilm is now being considered as a strong and effective mechanism of bacterial survival and growth in chronic wounds. Therefore it is clinically important to further investigate and determine the bacterial groups involved in the formation of biofilm in wounds and their mechanism of interference with the normal healing process.

Methods: This study focussed on determining the presence of S. epidermidis ica genes, which are responsible for biofilm production by this species. We investigated the presence of these genes in skin, blood and wound samples. In total, 296 samples were tested for the presence of the ica genes. RT-PCR and conventional PCR testing was performed on these samples from different sources.

Results: Our results show that there is presence of a significant number of ica positive samples both in skin and blood specimens while only a very small percentage of ica positive samples present in chronic non-healing wound samples.

Conclusions: Presence of ica genes in blood samples indicate involvement of ica positive S. epidermidis in the case of blood infection. In chronic wound samples, there is a small percentage of samples positive for these genes thus biofilm producing bacteria other than S. epidermidis are likely to be more important in the case of chronic wounds.


Keywords


Biofilm, Chronic wounds, Ica genes, Septicaemia, S. epidermidis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bradley BH, Cunningham M. Biofilms in chronic wounds and the potential role of negative pressure wound therapy: an integrative review. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs, 2013;40(2):143-9.

Chen L, Wen YM. The role of bacterial biofilm in persistent infections and control strategies. Int J Oral Sci. 2011;3(2):66-73.

Pöllänen MT, Paino A, Ihalin R. Environmental stimuli shape biofilm formation and the virulence of periodontal pathogens. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(8):17221-37.

de Oliveira A. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci. J Int of Mol Sci. 2016;17(9):1423.

Ramage G. Are we any closer to beating the biofilm: novel methods of biofilm control. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23(6):560-6.

Stoodley P. Biofilms as complex differentiated communities. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:187-209.

Dowd SE. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). 2008;3(10):e3326.

Hoiby N. The clinical impact of bacterial biofilms. Int J Oral Sci. 2011;3(2):55-65.

Mancl KA, Kirsner RS, Ajdic D. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms. Wound Repair Regen. 2013;21(3):352-62.

Kaplan JB. Biofilm dispersal: mechanisms, clinical implications, and potential therapeutic uses. J Dent Res. 2010;89(3):205-18.

Flemming HC, Wingender J. The biofilm matrix. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8(9):623-33.

Darby I. Non-surgical management of periodontal disease. Aust Dent J. 2009;54(1):S86-95.

Beloin C, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Lebeaux D. Understanding biofilm formation in intravascular device-related infections. Int Care Med; 2016:1-4.

Choong S, Whitfield H. Biofilms and their role in infections in urology. BJU Int. 2000;86(8):935-41.

Fitzpatrick F, Humphreys H, O'Gara JP. The genetics of staphylococcal biofilm formation--will a greater understanding of pathogenesis lead to better management of device-related infection? Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11(12):967-73.

Patel JD. S. epidermidis biofilm formation: effects of biomaterial surface chemistry and serum proteins. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;80(3):742-51.

Dunne WM. Bacterial adhesion: seen any good biofilms lately? Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15(2):155-66.

Traba C, Liang JF. Bacteria responsive antibacterial surfaces for indwelling device infections. J Cont Rel. 2015;198:18-25.

Chen M, Yu Q, Sun H. Novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of biofilm related infections. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(9):18488-501.

Bowler P. A clinical algorithm for wound biofilm identification. Journal of wound care. 2014;23(3);20-3.

Dowsett C. Biofilms: A practice-based approach to identification and treatment. Wounds UK. 2013;9(2).

Dou JL. New Is Old, and Old Is New: Recent Advances in Antibiotic-Based, Antibiotic-Free and Ethnomedical Treatments against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Wound Infections. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(5):617.

Gawande PV, Leung KP, Madhyastha S. Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Efficacy of DispersinB®-KSL-W Peptide-Based Wound Gel Against Chronic Wound Infection Associated Bacteria. Curr Microbiol; 2014:1-7.

Siddiqui AR, Bernstein JM. Chronic wound infection: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(5):519-26.

Hurlow J, Bowler PG. Potential implications of biofilm in chronic wounds: a case series. J Wound Care. 2012;21(3):109-110,112,114.

James GA. Biofilms in chronic wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 2008;16(1):37-44.

Wolcott R, Dowd S. The role of biofilms: are we hitting the right target? Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127(1): 28S-35S.

Hess CT, Kirsner RS. Understanding the Presence of Biofilms in Wound Healing: Opportunities for Intervention, Today's Wound Clinic; 2012.

Park E. Staphyloccocus aureus Biofilms Impair Reepithelialization and Granulation Tissue Deposition in Cutaneous Wounds via a MyD88-Dependent Mechanism. Plastic Reconstruct Surg. 2014;133(3s):155.

Gotz F. Staphylococcus and biofilms. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43(6):1367-78.

Boda SK. Cytotoxicity of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles on Planktonic and Biofilm Encapsulated Gram‐Positive Staphylococci. Small. 2015;11(26):3183-93.

Wojtyczka RD. Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains from a Hospital Environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(5):4619-33.

Otto M. Staphylococcus epidermidis-the accidental pathogen. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7(8):555-67.

Thant P. Microbial Colonization of Intravascular Catheters Inserted in Newborn Babies: A Descriptive Study. Clin Pediatr. 2016;1(1000108):2.

O'Gara JP, Humphreys H. Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: importance and implications. J Med Microbiol. 2001;50(7):582-7.

Mack D. The intercellular adhesin involved in biofilm accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a linear beta-1, 6-linked glucosaminoglycan: purification and structural analysis. J Bact. 1996;178(1):175-83.

Stevens NT, Greene CM, O'Gara JP, Humphreys H. Biofilm characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates associated with device-related meningitis. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:855-62.

Heilmann C, Schweitzer O, Gerke C, Vanittanakom N, Mack D, Gotz F. Molecular basis of intracellular adhesion in biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20(5):1083-91.

Ngo QD, Vickery K, Deva AK. The effect of topical negative pressure on wound biofilms using an in vitro wound model. Wound Repair Regen. 2012;20(1):83-90.

Scali C, Kunimoto B. An update on chronic wounds and the role of biofilms. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery. 2012;17(6):371-6.

Price LB. Macroscale spatial variation in chronic wound microbiota: a cross-sectional study. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19(1):80-8.

Diemond-Hernandez B, Solorzano-Santos F, Leanos-Miranda B, Peregrino-Bejarano L, Miranda-Novales G. Production of icaADBC-encoded polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and therapeutic failure in pediatric patients with Staphylococcal device-related infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:68.

Ziebuhr W, Krimmer V, Rachid S, Lössner I, Götz F, Hacker J. A novel mechanism of phase variation of virulence in Staphylococcus epidermidis: evidence for control of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis by alternating insertion and excision of the insertion sequence element IS256. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32(2):345-56.

Rhoads DD. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:321.

Gardner SE. The neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer microbiome is associated with clinical factors. Diabetes. 2013;62(3):923-30.

Kozitskaya S. Clonal analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates carrying or lacking biofilm-mediating genes by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(9):4751-7.

Galdbart JO. Screening for Staphylococcus epidermidis markers discriminating between skin-flora strains and those responsible for infections of joint prostheses. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(1):351-5.

Cole SJ. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by Exopolysaccharide-Independent Biofilms. Infection and immunity. 2014;82(5):2048-58.

Han A. The importance of a multifaceted approach to characterizing the microbial flora of chronic wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19(5):532-41.

Frank KL. In vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on planktonic and biofilm forms of Staphylococcus lugdunensis clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(3):888-95.