Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

R. Narmadha, K. Devaki


Background: To evaluate the acute toxicity study and effective dose determination of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L.

Methods: Toxicological evaluation and effective dose determination of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata were performed in wistar albino rats. 250, 500, 1000 and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata (EtBc) were administered orally as a single dose to rats. Rats were observed periodically for symptoms of toxicity and death within 24 hours and then daily for the next 14 days. So the rats were observed for another 14 days and then sacrificed to collect serum and organs for the analysis of biochemical parameters. After this study, rats were induced with diabetes by a single intra peritoneal injection of 45 mg/kg bodyweight of streptozotocin. Ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata was orally administered to diabetic rats at 200, 400 and 600mg/kg doses for 7 days through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Glycemic index was demonstrated the variable doses of ethanolic leaf extract in normal and diabetic rats during OGTT studies.

Results: In acute toxicity study, the results were showed that the administration of the ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata (EtBc) at all given doses (up to 2000 mg kg) did not produce any sign of acute toxicity or instant death in rats tested during the period of observation. From OGTT study, 400mg/kg dosage of EtBc exhibited notable blood glucose lowering effect at 90 min than the other doses and this was similar to that of standard drug glibenclamide treated rats. This dosage was showed the highest percentage of glycemic index in both normal and diabetic rats.

Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats.


Diabetes mellitus, Medicinal plant, Hyperglycemia

Full Text:



Anitha M, Sakthidevi G, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan VR. Effect of Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vehl ex Hornem) Thunb. Ex Lehm on Oral Glucose Tolerance in rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2012. 2:75-78.

Umashanker K, Chandra S, Sharma J. Antidiabetic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in Streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats and its influence on certain biochemical parameters. Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics 2012. 2:159 -162

Pund K V, Vyawahare N S, Gadakh R T, Murkute V K. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Dalbergia Sissoo against alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2012;2:81-88.

Hemalakshmi V, Thejomoorthy P, Sriram P, Mathuram L.N. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Eclipta alba in experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in rats. J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 2012. 8:215-226.

Sriram S, Sasikumar C.G. Pharmacognostic Standardization and Physicochemical analysis of the leaves of Barleria montana Wight & Nees. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed., 2012. 1: 1-3.

Sasaki T, Matsy S, Sonae A. Effect of acetic acid concentration on the color reaction in the O-toludine boric acid method for blood glucose estimation. Rinshbokagaku 1972. 1:346-353.

Reitman S, Frankel S.A. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol 1957. 28:56-63.

Natelson S, Scott M.L, Beffna C. A rapid method for the estimation of urea in biological fluids by means of the reaction between diacetyl and urea. Am. J. Clin. Pathol 1951. 21:275-281.

Caraway WT. Uric Acid. In: Standard methods of clinical chemistry, Seligson, D. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York .1963. 4: 239-247.

Owen JA. Iggo B. Scandrett F.J. Stewart C.P. The determination of creatinine in plasma or serum and in urine: A critical examination. Biochem J 1954. 58:426-437.

Akhila JS, Shyamjith M, Deepa K, Alwar M.C.. Acute toxicity studies and determination of median lethal dose. Curr Sci 2007. 7: 917-920.

Borges GR, Oliveira M, Salgado HC, Fazan R. Myocardial performance in conscious streptozotocin diabetic rats. Cardio Diabet 2006. 5: 1-8.

Chapman K, Cretona S, Kupferschmidtb H, Bond GR, Wilks MF, Robinson S. The value of acute toxicity studies to support the clinical management of overdose and poisoning: A cross-discipline consensus. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2010. 58:354-359.

Urita Y, Ishihara S, Akimoto T, Kato H, Hara N, Honda Y, Nagai Y, Nakanishi K, Shimada N, Sugimoto M, Miki K. Seventy five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth. World J Gastroenterol 2006. 12: 3092-3095.

Oyedemi S, Bradley G, Afolayan A. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Strychnoshenningsii gilg in Streptozotocin-nicotinamide type 2 diabetic rats. Iranian J Pharm Res 2012. 11: 221-228.