Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae)
Keywords:Ischuria, Muscarinic receptors, Nicotinic receptors, Ganglion stimulant, Detrusor smooth muscle, Histaminic effect
Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria.
Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s) of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.
Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine) and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001) and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001) and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01). The extract (80-800 mg kg-1) was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function.
Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria.
Gyasi-Sarpong CK, Yenli EMT, Idriss A, Arhiz AA, Aboah K, Azorliade R, et al. Bacterial urinary tract infection among males with lower urinary tract obstruction at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. J Urol. 2012;2:131-6.
Curtis LA, Dolan TS, Cespedes DR. Acute urinary retention and urinary incontinence. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001;19(3):591-620.
Glavind K and Bjork J. Incidence and treatment of urinary retention postpartum. Int Urogynaecol J. 2003;14:119-21.
Selius BA and Subedi R. Urinary retention in adults: diagnosis and initial management. Am Fam Physician 2008;77(5):643-50.
Kavia RB, Daha SN, Dasgupta R, Elneil S, Fowler CJ. Urinary retention in women: its causes and management. BJU International, 2006;97:281-7.
Grosshans U, Passadori Y, Peters B. Urinary retention in the elderly: A study of 100 hospitalized patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41:633-8.
Kalejaiye O and Speakman MJ. Management of acute and chronic urinary retention in men. European Urology Supplements 2009;8:523-9.
Nickel JC. Urinary retention. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). NIH Publication No. 08-6089. 2007. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/ pubs/UrinaryRetention/#diagnosis. Accessed 21 June 2013.
Mshana NR, Abbiw DK, Addae-Mensah I, Adjanohoun E, Ahyi MRA, Ekpere JA, et al. Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia, Contribution to the revision of ethnobotanical and Floristic Studies in Ghana. Lagos, Nigeria: Organization of African Unity (OAU)/ Scientific and Technical Research Commission (STRC); 2000.
Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd ed. Volume 1, Families A–D. Richmond, United Kingdom, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 1985: 960 pages.
Lemmens RHMJ and Bunyapraphatsara N. Amaranthus spinosus L. In: de Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(1). Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers;1999:110-13.
Zeashan H, Amnesh G, Ras CV, Singh SI. Antinociceptive activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 122(3):492-6.
Lin B, Ching B, Lin Y. Amaranthus spinosus water extract stimulating proliferation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(4):711-22.
Olajide OA, Ogunleye BR, Erinle TO. Anti-inflammatory properties of Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract. Pharmaceutical Biology, 2004; 42(7):521-25.
Chaundry MA, Imran I, Bashir S, Mehmood MH, Rehmon N, Gilani A. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilatory activity of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:166.
Wagner H. and Bladt S. Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography. 2nd ed, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 1996.
Harborne JB, Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis, 3rd ed, Springer, London, 1998:302.
Kujur RS, Singh V, Ram M, Yadava HN, Singh KK, Kumari S, Roy BK. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010;2(4):258-63.
Saito M and Miyagawa I.. Bladder dysfunction after acute urinary retention in rats. J Urol. 2001;165(5):1745-7.
Okpako DT and Taiwo YOO. Cyclo-oxyginase inhibitors antagonize indirectly evoked contractions of the guinea-pig isolated ileum by inhibiting acetylcholine release. Br J Pharm. 1984;82:577-85.
Taira N. The autonomic pharmacology of the bladder. Annu Rev Pharmacol. 1972;12:197-208.
Boselli C, Govoni S, Condins HM, D’Agostino G. Bladder instability; a re-appraisal of classical and experimental approaches and development of new therapeutic strategies. J Auton Pharmacol. 2001;21(5):219-29.
Watanabe H and Yamamoto TY. Autonomic innervations of the muscles in the wall of the bladder and proximal urethra of male rats. J Anat. 1979;128(4):873-86.
Fetscher C, Fleichman M, Schimdt M, Krege S, Michel MC. M3 muscarinic receptors mediate contraction of human urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136:641-4.
Chess-Williams R. Muscarinic receptors of the urinary bladder: detrusor, urothelial and prejunctional. Auton. Autacoid Pharmacol. 2002;22:133-45.
Andersson KE, Holmquist F, Fovaeus M, Hedlund H, Sundler R. Muscarinic receptor stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the human isolated urinary bladder. J Urol., 1991;146:1156–9.
Awad SA, Bruce AW, Carro-Ciampi G, Downie JW, Lin M. Distribution of alpha and beta adrenoceptors in human urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol. 1974;50:525-9.
Kizawa Y, Takayanagi I, Shinkai M, Ohno Y. Pharmacological action of nicotine in the isolated urinary bladder from rabbit: Special reference to the chronic nicotine treatment. Gen Pharmacol. 1988;19(2):269-71.
Vizi ES. Acetylcholine release from guinea-pig ileum by parasympathetic ganglion stimulants and gastrin-like polypeptides. Br J Pharmacol 1973;47:765-77.
Berges RR, Windeler J, Trampisch TH, Senge TH. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. Lancet 1995;345:1529-32.
Klippel KF, Hiltl DM, Schipp B. A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Br J Urol. 1997;80:427-32.
Sadoughi N, Tandoc V, Ablin RJ, Bush IM. Effects of digitalis on urinary retention. Urology 1973;2(5): 582-3.
Marienfeld C, Tadlock L, Yamagiwa Y, Patel Y. Inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma growth by tannic acid. Hepatology 2003;37(5):1097-1104.
Steinhoff M, Ständer S, Seeliger S, Ansel JC, Schmelz M, Luger T. Modern aspects of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation, Arch Dermatol., 2003;139(11):1479-88.
Ganesan K, Raza SK, Vijayaraghavan R. Chemical warfare agents. J Pharm Bioallied Sci., 2010;2(3):166-78.
aKoffuor GA, Woode E, Mensah AY. Neurobehavioural and safety evaluation of a polyherbal antihypertensive mixture in Ghana. Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 2011;1(3):20-30.
Podell M. Tremor, fasciculations, and movement disorders. Vet Clin Small Anim. 2004;34:1435–52.
MediaLab Incorporated, Urine Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. 2013. .Available at: http://www.medialabinc.net/urine-keyword.aspx. Accessed 22 June, 2013.
Talarico LD. Myeloproliferative disorders: A practical review. Patient Care. 1998;30:37-57.
França RT, Da Silva AS, Costa MM, Paim FC, Soares JF, Labruna MB, et al. Hematologic and bone marrow changes in dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. Vet Clin Pathol., 2013;42(1):31-9.
Pincus MR and Abraham NZ. Interpreting laboratory results. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011.
bKoffuor GA, Woode E, Obirikorang C, Asiamah E. Toxicity Evaluation of a Polyherbal Antihypertensive Mixture in Ghana. Journal of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences 2011;1(2):34-8.
Phillips JE, Best MA. Liver function tests. 2013. Available at: http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/La-Pa/Liver-Function-Tests.html. Accessed 22 June 2013.