Prostate cancer: emerging pharmacotherapeutic modalities

Pratap Shankar, Anoop Kumar Verma, Rakesh Kumar Dixit, Amod Kumar Sachan

Abstract


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the world due to factors like old age, family history, ethnicity, diet and some elements exposure, with lot of controversies regarding prevention of prostate cancer. Though the exact pathogenesis is not clear, epidemiological evidence supports a relationship between prostate cancer and hormone levels. In this review article we are focusing on the advances in different pharmacotherapeutic modalities i.e. Chemoprevention, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Hormone Therapy, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, SERM, Vaccines, Cryotherapy, Watchful Waiting, Radiotherapy and Androgen Deprivation Therapy etc. and new possibilities with strategies to provide maximal benefits while effectively balancing risks for the prostate cancer treatment.


Keywords


Prostate Cancer, Pharmacotherapy, Modalities, Chemoprevention

Full Text:

PDF

References


National Cancer Institute. Cancer Stat Fact Sheets. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ prost.html. Accessed 1 August 2012.

Budäus L, Bolla M, Bossi A, Cozzarini C, Crook J, Widmark A, Wiegel T. Functional Outcomes and Complications Following Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol 2012;61:112-27.

Moorthy HK, Venugopal P. Strategies for prostate cancer prevention: Review of the literature. Indian J Urol 2008;24:295-302.

Ross RK, Bernstein L, Lobo RA, Shimizu H, Stanczyk F, Pike M, et al. 5 Alpha reductase activity and risk of prostate cancer among Japanese and US white and black males. Lancet 1992;339:887-9.

Pienta KJ, Esper PS. Risk factors for prostate cancer. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:793-803.

Osoba D. Health-related quality of life and cancer clinical trials. Ther Adv Med Oncol 2011;3:57-71.

Hou AH, Swanson D, Barqawi AB. Modalities for Imaging of Prostate Cancer. Advances in Urology 2009;818065, doi:10.1155/2009/818065.

Uhlman MA, Moul JW, Tang P, Stackhouse DA, Sun L. Risk stratification in the hormonal treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Ther Adv Med Oncol 2009;1:79-94.

Amling CL, Blute ML, Bergstralh EJ, Seay TM, Slezak J, Zincke H. Long-term hazard of progression after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: continued risk of biochemical failure after 5 years. J Urol 2000;164:101-5.

Catalona WJ, Smith DS. 5-year tumor recurrence rates after anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol 1994;152:1837-42.

Pound CR, Partin AW, Eisenberger MA, Chan DW, Pearson JD, Walsh PC. Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy. JAMA 1999;281:1591-7.

Zincke H, Oesterling JE, Blute ML, Bergstralh EJ, Myers RP, Barrett DM. Long-term (15 years) results after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized (Stage T2c or Lower) prostate cancer. J Urol 1994;152:1850-7.

Middleton RG, Thompson IM, Austenfield MS, Cooner WH, Correa RJ, Gibbons RP, et al. Prostate Cancer Clinical Guidelines Panel Summary report on the management of clinically localized prostate cancer. The American Urological Association. J Urol 1995;154:2144-8.

Fallon B, Williams RD. Current options in the management of clinical stage C prostatic carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 1990;17:853-66.

Makarov DV, Trock BJ, Humphreys EB, et al. Updated nomogram to predict pathologic stage of prostate cancer given prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, and biopsy Gleason score (Partin tables) based on cases from 2000 to 2005. Urology 2007;69:1095-101.

Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerman DL, Redmond CK, Kavanah M, Cronin WM, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer-report of the national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project P-1 study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1371-88.

Brawley OW. The potential for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Rev Urol 2002;4:S11-7.

Gupta S. Prostate cancer chemoprevention - models, limitations and potential. Int J Oncol 2004;25:1133-48.

Lieberman R. Evolving strategies for prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. World J Urol 2003;21:1-11.

Cooperberg MR, Lubeck DP, Mehta SS, et al. Time trends in clinical risk stratification for prostate cancer: implications for outcomes (data from CaPSURE). J Urol 2003;170(6 Pt 2):S21-S25.

See W, Iversen P, Wirth M, McLeod D, Garside L, Morris T. Immediate Treatment with Bicalutamide 150 mg as Adjuvant Therapy Significantly Reduces the Risk of PSA Progression in Early Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol 2003;44:512-7.

Shipley WU, Thames HD, Sandler HM, Hanks GE, Zietman AL, Perez CA, et al. Radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: a multi-institutional pooled analysis. JAMA 1999;281:1598-604.

Pound CR, Partin AW, Epstein JL, Walsh PC. Prostate-specific antigen after anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy: patterns of recurrence and cancer control. Urol Clin North Am 1997;24:395-406.

McLaren DB, McKenzie M, Duncan G, Pickles T. Watchful waiting or watchful progression?: Prostate specific antigen doubling times and clinical behavior in patients with early untreated prostate carcinoma. Cancer 1998;82:342-8.

Salagierski M, Schalken JA. PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG: Promising Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis. Cancers 2010;2:1432-40.

Iversen P, Johansson JE, Lodding P, Kylmala T, Lundmo P, Klarskov P, et al. Bicalutamide 150 Mg in addition to standard care for patients with early non-metastatic prostate cancer: Updated results from the scandinavian prostate cancer period group-6 study after a median follow-up period of 7.1 years. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2006;40:441-52.

Heidenreich A, Aus G, Bolla M, Joniau S, Matveev VB, Schmid HP, et al. Eau-guidelines on prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2008;53:68-80.

Thompson I, Thrasher JB, Aus G, Burnett AL, Canby-Hagino ED, Cookson MS, et al. Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: 2007 update. J Urol 2007;177:2106-31.

Boorjian SA, Thompson RH, Siddiqui S, Bagniewski S, Bergstralh EJ, Karnes RJ, et al. Long-term outcome after radical prostatectomy for patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer in the prostate specific antigen era. J Urol 2007;178:864-70.

Bolla M. Combination of radiotherapy and hormonotherapy in locally advanced cancers of the prostate. Cancer Radiother 1997;1:439-42.

Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE, Galbreath RW, Allen ZA, Adamovich E, et al. Androgen deprivation therapy does not impact cause-specific or overall survival in high-risk prostate cancer managed with brachytherapy and supplemental external beam. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;68:34-40.

Machtens S, Baumann R, Hagemann J, Warszawski A, Meyer A, Karstens JH, et al. Long-term results of interstitial brachytherapy (Ldr-Brachytherapy) in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. World J Urol 2006;24:289-95.

Galalae RM, Martinez A, Mate T, Mitchell C, Edmundson G, Nuernberg N, et al. Long-term outcome by risk factors using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (Hdr-Bt) boost with or without neoadjuvant androgen suppression for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;58:1048-55.

Kumar S, Shelley M, Harrison C, Coles B, Wilt TJ, Mason MD. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormone therapy for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(4):CD006019.

Gupta S, Srivastava M, Ahmad N, Bostwick DG, Mukhtar H. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate carcinoma. Prostate 2000;42:73-8.

Barqawi A, Thompson IM, Crawford ED. Prostate cancer prevention: an overview of United States Trials. J Urol 2004;171:S5-9.

Steiner MS, Raghow S. Antiestrogens and selected estrogen receptor modulators reduce prostate cancer risk. World J Urol 2003;21:31-6.

Tarassoff CP, Arlen PM, Gulley JL. Therapeutic vaccines for prostate cancer. Oncologist 2006;11:451-62.

Bilusic M, Heery C, Madan RA. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: Emerging strategies against a formidable foe. Vaccine 2011;29:6485-97.

Shelley M, Wilt T, Coles B, Mason M. Cryotherapy for localised prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(3):CD005010.

Moul JW, Anderson J, Penson DF, Klotz LH, Soloway MS, Schulman CC. Early Prostate Cancer: Prevention, Treatment Modalities, and Quality of Life Issues. Eur Urol 2003;44:283-93.

Bolla M, Collette L, Blank L, et al. Long-term results with immediate androgen suppression and external irradiation in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (an EORTC study): a phase III randomized trial. Lancet 2002;360:103-6.

Laverdiere J, Gomez JL, Cusan L, et al. Beneficial effect of combination hormonal therapy administered prior and following external beam radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;37:247-52.

Koupparis AJ, Grummet JP, Hurtado-Coll A, Bell RH, Buchan N, Goldenberg SL, Gleave ME. Radical prostatectomy for high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer: a prospective single institution series. Can Urol Assoc J 2011;5:E156-E161.

Schuster DM, Votaw JR, Nieh PT, et al. Initial experience with the radiotracer anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid with PET/CT in prostate carcinoma. J Nucl Med 2007;48:56-63.

Apolo AB, Pandit-Taskar N, Morris MJ. Novel tracers and their development for the imaging of metastatic prostate cancer. J Nucl Med 2008;49:2031-41.

Choueiri MB, Tu SM, Yu-Lee LY, Lin SH. The central role of osteoblasts in the metastasis of prostate cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2006;25:601-9.

Kabeer MA, Lloyd-Davies E, Maskell G, Hohle R, Mathew J. Metastatic prostate cancer masquerading clinically and radiologically as a primary caecal carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol 2007;5:2.

Santos-Filho Sebastião David, Missailids Sotiris, da Fonseca Adenilson de Souza, Bernardo-Filho M. Prostate Cancer, Treatment Modalities and Complications: An Evaluation of the Scientific Literature. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2008;51:51-6.

Rappuoli R, Aderem A. A 2020 vision for vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Nature 2011;473:463-9.