Microbial xylanases and their biomedical applications: a review


  • Girish K. Goswami Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Rakesh R. Pathak Department of Pharmacology, C.U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagar 363001, India


Xylan, Xylanase, Industry, Medical, Veterinary, Agricultural


Xylanases have a great potential, mainly known for industrial applications. They can hydrolyze the xylose (Hemicellulose of plant cell wall) and can be used for bio-bleaching the kraft pulp. As it reduces the requirement of harsh chemicals in the process, it can be used further to a number of bio-products with a great aggregate value. Microbial-origin xylanases can also be used in improving the nutritional quality of animal feed (e.g. food additives to poultry, piggery or fishery) and indirectly affect the humans. Additionally they can be used directly in human food in bakery, clarification of juices and in xenobiotics like tobacco processing. The great value of xylanase as a bio-bleaching agent has now a new dimension of fiber digesting agent having relevance to food, drugs and cosmetics act. This review presents some important applications of Xylanases extended up to biomedical sciences.


Agnihotri S, Dutt D, Tyagi CH, Kumar A, Upadhyaya JS. Production and biochemical characterization of a novel cellulase-poor alkali-thermo-tolerant xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC 1165.World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;26:1349-59.

Ahmed S, Jabeen A, Jamil A. Xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum: Enzyme characterization and gene isolation. J Chemical Society Pakistan 2011;29:176.

Akhtar M, Blanchette R, Kent Kirk T. Fungal delignification and biomechanical pulping

of wood. Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry, 1997:159-95.

Apel WA, Thompson VS, Thompson DN, Schaller KD. An overview of studies to characterize a thermo-acid stable xylanase and a thermo-alkali stable catalase from Yellowstone National Park bacteria. In The Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2008.

Bajpai P, Bajpai PK, Kondo R. Decolorization and Detoxification of Bleached Kraft Effluents. In Biotechnology for Environmental Protection in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 1999:141-70.

Balakrishnan H, Dutta-Choudhary N, Srinivasan MC, Rele MV. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 1992;8:627.

Bansod SM, Dutta-Choudhary M, Srinivasan MC, Rele MV. Xylanase active at high pH from an alkalo tolerant Cephalosporium species. Biotechnology Letters 1993;15:965-70.

Bapat VA, Trivedi PK, Ghosh A, Sane VA, Ganapathi TR, Nath P. Ripening of fleshy fruit: molecular insight and the role of ethylene. Biotechnology Advances 2010;28:94-107.

Barekatain MR, Choct M, Antipatis C, Iji PA. Use Of Protease and Xylanase in Broiler Diets Contaning Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles; 23rd Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium, Sydney, New South Wales; 19th -22nd, February 2012.

Beg QK, Bhushan B, Kapoor M, Hoondal GS. Enhanced production of a thermostable xylanase from Streptomyces sp. QG-11-3 and its application in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Enzyme and microbial technology 2000;27:459-66.

Beg QK, Kapoor M, Mahajan L, Hoondal GS. Microbial xylanases and their Industrial applications: a review. App Microbio Biotechnoal 2001;56:326-38.

Belancic A, Scarpa J, Peirano A, Diaz R, Steiner J, Eyzayuirre J. Penicillium purpurogenum produces several xylanases: purification and properties of two of the enzymes. J Biotechnol 1995;41:71-9.

Biely P. Biotechnological potential and production of xylanolytic systems free of cellulases. In ACS Symp Ser 1991;460:408-16.

Biely P, Kluepfel D, Morosoli R, Shareck F. Mode of action of three endo-β-1,4-xylanases of Streptomyces lividans; Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology 1993;1162:246-54.

Borisjuk NV, Borisjuk LG, Logendra S, Petersen F, Gleba Y, Raskin I. Production of recombinant proteins in plant root exudates. Nature Biotechnology 1999;17:466-9.

Cesar T, Mrša V. Purification and properties of the xylanase produced by Thermomyces lanuginosus. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1996;19:289-96.

Chaudhary P, Deobagkar DN. Characterization of cloned endoxylanase from Cellulomonas sp. NCIM 2353 expressed in Escherichia coli. Current Microbiology 1997;34:273-9.

Chen CC, Adolphson R, Dean JF, Eriksson KEL, Adams MW, Westpheling J. Release of lignin from kraft pulp by a hyperthermophilic xylanase from Thermatoga maritima. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1997;20:39-45.

Chen HH, Li GQ. Effect of xylanase on pasting properties of flour and bread quality [J]. Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods 2010;1:5.

Chen YP, Hwang IE, Lin CJ, Wang HJ, Tseng CP. Enhancing the stability of xylanase from Cellulomonas fimi by cell-surface display on Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol 2012;112:455-63.

Christakopoulos P, Kekos D, Macris BJ, Claeyssens M, Bhat MK. Purification and characterisation of a major xylanase with cellulase and transferase activities from Fusarium oxysporum. Carbohydrate Research 1996;289:91-104.

Christov LP, Myburgh J, O'Neill FH, Van Tonder A, Prior BA. Modification of the Carbohydrate Composition of Sulfite Pulp by Purified and Characterized β‐Xylanase and β‐Xylosidase of Aureobasidium pullulans. Biotechnology Progress 1999;15:196-200.

Clark TA, McDonald AG, Senior DJ, Mayers PR. In: Biotechnology in Pulp and Paper Manufacture, Kirk TK, Chang HM, eds. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1990:153-67.

Davis CL, Donkin CJ, Hinch SA, Germishuizen P. The microbiology of pine bark composting: an electron-microscope and physiological study. Bioresource Technology 1992;40:195-204.

Dey D, Hinge J, Shendye A, Rao M. Purification and properties of extracellular endo-xylanases from alkalophilic thermophilic Bacillus Sp. Can J Microbiol 1992;38:436-42.

Elegir G, Sykes M, Jeffries TW. Differential and synergistic action of Streptomyces endoxylanases in prebleaching of kraft pulp. Enzyme Microb Technol 1995;17:954-9.

Fang TJ, Liao BC, Lee SC. Enhanced production of xylanase by Aspergillus carneus M34 in solid-state fermentation with agricultural waste using statistical approach. New Biotechnology 2010;27:25-32.

Fu J, Yang X, Yu C. Preliminary research on bamboo degumming with xylanase. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 2008;26:450-4.

Ghosh M, Nanda G. Purification and some properties of a xylanase from Aspergillus sydowii MG49. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1994;60:4620-3.

Giridhar PV, Chandra TS. Production of novel halo-alkali-thermo-stable xylanase by a newly isolated moderately halophilic and alkali-tolerant Gracilibacillus sp. TSCPVG. Process Biochemistry 2010;45:1730-7.

Gupta N, Vohra RM, Hoondal GS. A thermostable extracellular xylanase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. NG-27. Biotechnology Letters 1992;14:1045-6.

Gupta S, Bhushan B, Hoondal GS. Isolation, purification and characterization of xylanase from Staphylococcus sp. SG‐13 and its application in bio bleaching of kraft pulp. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2000;88:325-34.

Haapala R, Linko S, Parkkinen E, Suominen P. Production of endo-1, 4-β-glucanase and xylanase by Trichoderma reesei immobilized on polyurethane foam. Biotechnology Techniques 1994;8:401-6.

Haltrich D, Sebesta B, Steiner W. Induction of xylanase and cellulase in Schizophyllum commune. In ACS Symposium Series 1995;618:305-18.

Hokanson CA, Cappuccilli G, Odineca T, Bozic M, Behnke CA, Mendez M, Crea R. Engineering highly thermostable xylanase variants using an enhanced combinatorial library method. Protein Engineering Design and Selection 2011;24:597-605.

Horikoshi K, Atsukawa Y. Xylanase Produced by Alkalophilic Bacillus No. C-59-2. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 1973;37:2097-103.

Huichang C. Application of Xylanase in Fish Feed. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences 2006;34.13:3077.

Iji PA, Barekatain MR. Implications for the Feed Industry, 2011. Available at cdn.intechweb.org.

Inagaki K, Nakahira K, Mukai K, Tamura T, Tanaka H. Gene cloning and characterization of an acidic xylanase from Acidobacterium capsulatum. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 1998;62:1061-7.

Ito K, Ikemasu T, Ishikawa T. Cloning and sequencing of Xyn A gene encoding xylanase A of Aspergillus kawachii. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1992;56:906-12.

Joshi, M. D., Hedberg, A., & Mcintosh, L. P. (2008). Complete measurement of the pKa values of the carboxyl and imidazole groups in Bacillus circulans xylanase. Protein science, 6(12), 2667-2670.

Juodeikiene G, Basinskiene L, Vidmantiene D, Makaravicius T, Bartkiene E, Schols H; The use of β-xylanase for increasing the efficiency of biocatalytic conversion of crop residues to bioethanol;; Catalysis Today; Volume 167, Issue 1, 10 June 2011:113-21.

Karaduman Y, Gokcan C, Onal L (2012); Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the mechanical properties of jute fiber-reinforced polyester composites; Journal of Composite Materials, May 22, 2012 0021998312446826.

Khanna, S. (1993). Regulation, purification, and properties of xylanase from Cellulomonas fimi. Enzyme and microbial technology, 15(11), 990-995.

Khasin A, Alchanati I, Shoham Y (1993) Purification and characterization of a thermostable xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 1725-1730.

Kim JH, Kim SC, Nam SW (2000). Constitutive overexpression of the endoxylanase gene in Bacillus subtilis. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 10: 551-553.

Kimura, I., Sasahara, H., & Tajima, S. (1995). Purification and characterization of two xylanases and an arabinofuranosidase from Aspergillus sojae. Journal of fermentation and bioengineering, 80(4), 334-339.

Kumar, V., & Satyanarayana, T. (2012). Thermo-alkali-stable xylanase of a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 and its application in biobleaching. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 75, 138-145.

Lapidot, A., Mechaly, A., & Shoham, Y. (1996). Overexpression and single-step purification of a thermostable xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6. Journal of biotechnology, 51(3), 259-264.

Lee, S.F. and Forsberg, C.W. (1987) Purification & characterization of and L drabinofenanosidase from clostridium acetabutylicum ATCC 824.

Lee RC, Hrmova M, Burton RA (2003). Bifunctional family 3 glycoside hydrolases from Barley with alpha-L-Arabinofuranosidase and beta-D-Xyylosidase activity characterization, primary structure and COOH-terminal processing. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 5377-5388.

Leelavathi, S., Gupta, N., Maiti, S., Ghosh, A., & Siva Reddy, V. (2003). Overproduction of an alkali-and thermo-stable xylanase in tobacco chloroplasts and efficient recovery of the enzyme. Molecular Breeding, 11(1), 59-67.

Li, X. L., Zhang, Z. Q., Dean, J. F., Eriksson, K. E., & Ljungdahl, L. G. (1993). Purification and characterization of a new xylanase (APX-II) from the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans Y-2311-1. Applied and environmental microbiology, 59(10), 3212-3218.

Li JY, Yang YL, Li CY, Liu WX. (2011). Optimization of Technology for High Extraction Rate of Juice from Strawberry by Enzyme Method. Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi, 9, 50.

Liu W, Zhu W, Lu Y, Kong J, Ma G. (1998). Production, partial purification and characterization of xylanase from Trichosporon cutaneum SL409. Process Biochemistry, 33(3), 331-336.

Magnuson, T. S., & Crawford, D. L. (1997). Purification and characterization of an alkaline xylanase from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Enzyme and microbial technology, 21(3), 160-164.

Malagutti L, Colombini S, Rapetti L, Pirondini M, et al. Xylanase and benzoic acid in the fattening heavy pig: effects on growth performance and on nitrogen and energy balance. Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, 2010:403-4.

Mini-Encyclopedia of Papermaking Wet-End Chemistry. Available at http://www4.ncsu.edu/~hubbe/KRFT.

Momtazan R, Moravej H, Zaghari M, Taheri HR. A note on the effects of a combination of

an enzyme complex and probiotic in the diet

on performance of broiler chickens. Irish Journal

of Agricultural and Food Research 2011;50:249-54.

Morales, P., Madarro, A., Flors, A., Sendra, J., & Pérez-González, J. (1995). Purification and characterization of a xylanase and an arabinofuranosidase from Bacillus polymyxa. Enzyme and microbial technology, 17(5), 424-429.

Moreau, R. A., Powell, M. J., Whitaker, B. D., Bailey, B. A., & Anderson, J. D. (1994). Xylanase treatment of plant cells induces glycosylation and fatty acylation of phytosterols. Physiologia Plantarum, 91(4), 575-580.

Morosoli, R., Roy, C., & Yaguchi, M. (1986). Isolation and partial primary sequence of a xylanase from the yeast Cryptococcus albidus. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, 870(3), 473-478.

Nakamura, S., Nakai, R., Wajabatacgu, K., Ishiguro, Y., Aono, R. and Horikoshi, K. (1994) Thermophilic alkaline xylanase from newly isolated alkaliphilic and thermophilic Baillus sp. strain TAR-I. Biosci. Biotechnol. biochem. 58, 78-81.

Nwodo-Chinedu S, Okochi VI, Smith HA, Omidiji 0 (2005) Isolation of cellulolytic microfungi involved in wood-waste decomposition: Prospect for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes. Int. J. Biomed. Health Sci. 1(2): 41-51.

Nwodo-Chinedu S, Okochi VI, Omidiji O, Omowaye OO, Adeniji BR, Olukoju D, Chidozie F (2007). Potentials of cellulosic wastes in media formulation. Afr J Biotechnol. 6(3): 243-246.

Okafor, U. A., Okochi, V. I., Onyegeme-Okerenta, B. M., & Nwodo-Chinedu, S. (2010). Xylanase production by Aspergillus niger ANL 301 using agro-wastes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(14).

Østergaard, L. H., & Olsen, H. S. (2010). Industrial applications of fungal enzymes. Industrial Applications, 269-290.

Paice, M., Bernier, M. and Jurasek L. (1988) Viscosity-enhancing bleaching of hardwood kraft pulp with xylanase from a cloned gene. Biotechnol Bioeng. 32:235-239.

Pal, A., & Khanum, F. (2011). Efficacy of xylanase purified from Aspergillus niger DFR-5 alone and in combination with pectinase and cellulase to improve yield and clarity of pineapple juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology,48(5), 560-568.

Pappan, K. L., Corredor, D., Gerdes, B., Lee, D. A., Yelundur, S. A., Wu, X., & Wang, D. (2009, May). Transgenic Expression of Endoglucanase and Xylanase Genes Increases Tobacco Digestibility and Biomass Conversion. In The 31st Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals.

Patel, R.N., Grabski, A.C. and Jeffries, T.W. (1993) Chromophore release from fraff pulp by purified streptomyces sosciscleroticus lylamesnases. Appll. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39:405-412.

Ratanakhanokchai, K., Kyu, K. L., & Tanticharoen, M. (1999). Purification and properties of a xylan-binding endoxylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain K-1. Applied and environmental microbiology, 65(2), 694-697.

Ratto, M., Mathrani, I.M., Ahring, B. and Viikari, L. (1994) application of thermosfable lylavase of Dictyo glomus spices enzymatic treatment of kraft pulps. Appl. Microbiol, Biotechnol. 41, 130-133.

Ravanal, María-Cristina, Yeison Espinosa, Lorena Rosa, Inmaculada Vaca, Rubén Polanco, Jaime Eyzaguirre, Gloria Levicán, and Renato Chávez. "Glucose-induced production of a Penicillium purpurogenum xylanase by Aspergillus nidulans." Mycoscience 53, no. 2 (2012): 152-155.

Shao, W., DeBlois, S., & Wiegel, J. (1995). A High-Molecular-Weight, Cell-Associated Xylanase Isolated from Exponentially Growing Thermoanaerobacterium sp. Strain JW/SL-YS485. Applied and environmental microbiology, 61(3), 937-940.

Sharma, P. K., & Chand, D. (2012). Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice.

Silva RD, Yim DK, Park YK (1994) Application of thermostable xylanase from Humicola sp. for pulp improvement. J Ferment Bioeng 77: 109-111.

Simpson, B. K., Rui, X., & XiuJie, J. (2012). Enzyme-assisted food processing.Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing, 327-361.

Stalin, T., Priya, B. S., & Selvam, K. (2012). Ecofriendly application of cellulase and xylanase producing marine Streptomyces clavuligerus as enhancer in biogas production from waste. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6(6), 258-262.

Stutzenberger, F. J., & Bodine, A. B. (2008). Xylanase production by Thermomonospora curvata. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 72(6), 504-511.

Suneetha V, Khan JA (2011); eds of chap 14 (p 259) in Soil enzymology (eds Shukla G, Verma A), Springer Verlag, 2011.

Tenkanen, M., Puls, J., & Poutanen, K. (1992). Two major xylanases of Trichoderma reesei. Enzyme and microbial technology, 14(7), 566-574.

Tolan, J.S., Collins, J; Use of xylanase in the production of bleached, unrefined pulp at Marathon Pulp Inc. Pulp & Paper Canada 105(7): T167-169 (July, 2004).

Tremblay, L. and Archibald, F. (1993) Production of clowed Aylavase in Bacilluscerus and its performance in kraft prebleaching. Can. J. Microbiol. 39, 853-860.

Tsujibo, H., Miyamoto, K., Kuda, T., Minami, K., Sakamoto, T., Hasegawa, T., & Inamori, Y. (1992). Purification, properties, and partial amino acid sequences of thermostable xylanases from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520.Applied and environmental microbiology, 58(1), 371-375.

Uchino, F., & Nakane, T. (1981). A Thermostable Xylanase from a Thermophilic Acidophilic Bacillus sp. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 45(5), 1121-1127.

Velkova, Z. I., Gocheva, V. K., Kostov, G., & Atev, A. (2007). Optimization of nutritive media composition for hylanase production be aspergillus awamori. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 13(6), 651.

Verhoeven T, Short F, Weightman R, Cowieson A, Isaksen MF; Xylanase inhibitors in UK wheat varieties: Survey of incidence and significance to pig and poultry feed; ADAS consulting, trimester report May, 2005 (no 56) for Home-Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA). Available at http://www.hgca.com/ publications/documents/cropresearch/RR56_Final_Project_Review.pdf.

Verma, D., & Satyanarayana, T. (2011). Cloning, expression and applicability of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans in generating xylooligosaccharides from agro-residues. Bioresource Technology.

Verma D, Satyanarayana T (2012) ; Molecular approaches for ameliorating microbial xylanases; Bioresource Technology Volume 117, August 2012, Pages 360–367.

Vicuna R, Escobar F, Osses M, Jara A (1997) Bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp with commercial xylanase. Biotechnol Lett 19: 575-578.

Viikari L, Ranva M, Kantelinen A, Sandquist J, Linko M (1986) Bleaching with enzymes. Third international conference in biotechnology in pulp and paper industry. 16-19 June, Stock holm, pp 67-69.

Wilson, C. R., Tang, M. R., Christianson, T., Maurer, K. H., & Weiss, A. (1999). U.S. Patent No. 5,888,800. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Winterhalter, C., & Liebl, W. (1995). Two Extremely Thermostable Xylanases of the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8. Applied and environmental microbiology, 61(5), 1810-1815.

Woldesenbet, F., Gupta, N., & Sharma, P. (2012). Statistical optimization of the production of a cellulase-free, thermo-alkali-stable, salt-and solvent-tolerant xylanase from Bacillus halodurans by solid state fermentation. Archives of Applied Science Research 2012:4:524-35.

Wong KKY, Saddler JN. (1992) Trichoderma xylanases: Their properties and application. In: Xylans and Xylanases (Visser, J., Beldman, G., Someren, M.A.K. and Voragen, A.G.J., Eds.), pp. 171-186, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Yadav RD, Chaudhry S, Gupta S. Novel application of fungal Phanerochaete sp. and xylanase for reduction in pollution load of paper mill effluent. J Environ Biol 2012;33:223-6.

Yildirim YB, Turan F. Effect of Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation in Diets on Growth and Feed Utilization in African Catfish. Jounral of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2010;9:327-31.

Yoshioka H, Nagato N, Chavanich S, Nilubol N, Hayashida S. Purification and properties of thermostable xylanase from Talaromyces byssochlamydoides YH-50. Agricultural and biological chemistry 1981;45:2425.

Zhang SQHZJ, Xue-Zhi ZL. Effect of Xylanase Pretreatment of Wheat Straw Chemical Pulp Bleaching on Pollution Load of the Bleaching Effluent. Transactions of China Pulp and Paper 2008;1:8.




How to Cite

Goswami, G. K., & Pathak, R. R. (2017). Microbial xylanases and their biomedical applications: a review. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2(3), 237–246. Retrieved from https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/1248



Review Articles