Drug utilization pattern of analgesics in various departments of a tertiary care teaching rural dental hospital

Nirav N. Patel, Sunil Soitawala, Andrew Mark, Haresh Desai


Background: The aim was to study drug utilization pattern of analgesics in various departments of a tertiary care teaching rural dental hospital.

Methods: A prospective and observational study was undertaken in 150 patients from January 2014 to February 2014. Relevant information was obtained from the interview as well the hospital case record. Structured and pre-tested format were used for compiling the data.

Results: The majority of the patients (46%) were in the age group 41-60 years. Common indications for analgesic use included endodontic diseases (61.3%), surgical procedures (41.33%), and periodontal diseases (27.33%). Three analgesic formulations were used leading to a total of 150 drug uses. Fixed-dose drug combination (FDC) of diclofenac sodium plus paracetamol (78.66%) was the most commonly prescribed analgesic formulation, followed by aceclofenac plus paracetamol (15.33%) and ibuprofen (6%). The average number of analgesics prescribed per patient was 1.94. Analgesics were prescribed for 3 days. Except ibuprofen, FDC of diclofenac sodium + paracetamol and aceclofenac + paracetamol have been included in the WHO model list of essential medicines. All analgesic drug formulations were prescribed by their brand names.

Conclusions: Drug utilization data can help to formulate appropriate clinical guidelines for drug use and facilitate rational use of medicines in population.


Dentistry, Analgesics, Drug utilization study

Full Text:



World Health Organisation. Introduction to Drug Utilization Research. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2003.

Hargreaves K, Abbott PV. Drugs for pain management in dentistry. Aust Dent J. 2005;50 4 Suppl 2:s14-22.

Dionne RA, Berthold CW. Therapeutic uses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dentistry. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2001;12(4):315-30.

Lee Y, Rodriguez C, Dionne RA. The role of COX-2 in acute pain and the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors for acute pain relief. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(14):1737-55.

Krishnan V. Orthodontic pain: from causes to management - a review. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29(2):170-9.

Manasa CR, Dass AP. Prescribing patterns of antibiotics in dental practice. Int J Basic Appl Med Sci. 2013;3(2):336-9.

Rauniar GP, Das BP. A prospective study of dental disease pattern and drug utilization at the dental department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in eastern Nepal. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2001;40:6-11.

Kulkarni MD, Baig MS. Drug utilization pattern in OPD of government dental college and hospital, Aurangabad. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2013;2(1):69-70.

Burke A, Smyth E, Gerald GAF. Analgesic-antipyretic agents; pharmacotherapy of gout. In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. p. 685.

Salman MT, Khan FA. Drug prescribing pattern in dental teaching hospital. JK Sci. 2009;11(2):107.

Medical Council of India. The Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002 inter-alia prescribes as under regarding use of generic names of drugs vide clause 1.5. Available from: http://www.mciindia.org/tools/announcement/Circular_Ethics_21.01.2013.pdf. [Accessed 15 Nov 2013].