Comparative study of in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical composition of Sida cuneifolia fruits, leaves, and stem bark extracts


  • Rebecca Nalubega Department of Biomolecular resources and Biolab sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
  • Steven A. Nyanzi Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
  • Jesca L. Nakavuma Department of Biomolecular resources and Biolab sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda


Antibacterial, Antifungal, Phytochemistry, Poultry, Sida cuneifolia


Background: Sida cuneifolia plant parts are important in ethno-veterinary medicine, but no studies exist on a comparative evaluation of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial properties of fruits, stem bark and leaves. This study evaluated and compared extraction yields, phytochemical composition as well as antibacterial and antifungal properties of ether, methanol and aqueous crude extracts of fruits, leaves, and stem bark of S. cuneifolia.

Methods: Yields of extracts were determined, and qualitative phytochemical screening tests were carried out to establish their composition. Crude extracts were screened against five bacteria and two fungi. Agar disk diffusion technique was used to determine the inhibition zone diameters. Broth micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC).

Results: Triterpene aglycones, sterols, tannins, athracene derivatives, polyuronides and glucides were found in intense mounts in S. cuneifolia fruits. Leaves contained intense amounts of carotenoids, tannins, polyuronides and coumarin derivatives. For the leaves, methanol extracts had MICs and MBCs as low as (≤3.13 mg/ml) against the majority (6/7) microorganisms hence had the best activity. Considering the stem bark, the ether extracts had the best antimicrobial activity with MICs as low as ≤3.13 mg/ml against 6/7 microorganisms. For the fruits, the ether extracts had the best antibacterial activity with MICs and MBCs as low as (≤3.13 mg/ml) against all tested bacteria.

Conclusion: The study provides scientific evidence for ethno-veterinary use of S. cuneifolia leaves, fruits and stem bark, and this can be exploited in the transformative development of ethno-medicine.


Vollesen K. The Sida cuneifolia-complex (Malvaceae) in Africa. Kew Bull. 1986;41(1):91-8.

Kumar PD, Kumar PA, Kanta BR. Ethnomedicinal and therapeutic potential of Sida acuta Burm F. Int Res J Pharm. 2013;4(1):88-92.

Wake R, Patil N. Genus Sida - The plants with ethnomedicinal and therapeutic potential. Gold Res Thought. 2011;1:1-4.

Shinde SN, Patil NA, Halde UK. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and confirmation of secondary metabolites by HPTLC finger printing method of some important plant species of genus Sida. Int J Pharm Res Dev. 2013;5(3):207 12.

Nalubega R, Nyanzi AS, Nakavuma JL, Kamatenesi-Mugisha M. Ethnobotanical uses of Lantana trifolia L and Sida cuneifolia Roxb. in Mukungwe and Wabinyonyi sub-counties of Central Uganda. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2013;2(3):155-64.

van Vuuren S, Viljoen A. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of toothbrush sticks used in Ethiopia. S Afr J Bot. 2006;72(4):646-8.

Hamill FA, Apio S, Mubiru NK, Bukenya-Ziraba R, Mosango M, Maganyi OW, et al. Traditional herbal drugs of Southern Uganda, II: literature analysis and antimicrobial assays. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(1):57-78.

Ssegawa P, Kasenene JM. Medicinal plant diversity and uses in the Sango bay area, Southern Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113(3):521-40.

Okello SV, Nyunja RO, Netondo GW, Onyango JC. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009;7(1):1-10.

Nalubega R, Kabasa JD, Olila D, Kateregga J. A survey of indegenous knowledge on poultry ethnomedicinal plants in Masaka District, Uganda. Res J Poult Sci. 2012;5(2):18-23.

Nalubega R, Kabasa J, Olila D, Katerega J. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of eleven plants used as poultry ethnomedicines in Southern Uganda. Agric J. 2011;6(6):303-9.

Ravikumar S, Inbaneson SJ, Suganthi P. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of South Indian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2(3):180-3.

Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: a review. Int pharm sci. 2011;1(1):98-106.

Sampietro DA, Catalan CN, Vattuone MA. Isolation, Identification and Characterisation of Allelochemicals/Natural Products. Enfield, NH, USA: Science Publishers; 2009.

Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants’ extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(1):1-10.

Zellagui A, Tijani S, Gherraf N, Rhouati S. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Antibacterial activity of alkaloids extract of senecio delphinifolius vahl. Der Pharm Chem. 2012;4(5):2080-4.

Saini ML, Saini R, Roy S, Kumar A. Comparative pharmacognostical and antimicrobial studies of Acacia species (Mimosaceae). J Med Plants Res. 2008;2(12):378 86.

Díaz-Castelazo C, Rico-Gray V, Ortega F, Angeles G. Morphological and secretory characterization of extrafloral nectaries in plants of coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Ann Bot. 2005;96(7):1175-89.

Emad MA, Amna SK, Nazlina I. Antibacterial activity of oleo-gum resins of Commiphora molmol and Boswellia papyrifera against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Sci Res Essays. 2009;4(4):351-6.

Akinyemi KO, Oladapo O, Okwara CE, Ibe CC, Fasure KA. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2005;5(1):6.

Zohra SF, Meriem B, Samira S, Alsayadi-Muneer M. Phytochemical screening and identification of some compounds from Mallow. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2012;2(4):512-6.

Wecker L, Krzanowski J. Drug development. In: Enna SJ, Bylund DB, editors. xPharm: the Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference. New York: Elsevier; 2007: 1-3.

Jorgensen JH, Ferraro MJ. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(11):1749-55.

Sasidharan S, Latha YL, Ping YK, Lachumy JS. Screening Methods in the Study of Fungicidal Property of Medicinal Plants, Fungicides for Plants and Animal Diseases. Shanghai: InTech; 2012.

Monks NR, Lerner C, Henriques AT, Farias FM, Schapoval EE, Suyenaga ES, et al. Anticancer, antichemotactic and antimicrobial activities of marine sponges collected off the coast of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol. 2002;281(1-2):1-12.

Doughari JH, Ndakidemi PA, Human IS, Banade S. Curtisia dentata: ethnopharmacological application. J Med Plant Res. 2011;5:1606-12.

Wink M, Schmeller T, Latz-Brüning B. Modes of action of allelochemical alkaloids: interaction with neuroreceptors, DNA, and other molecular targets. J Chem Ecol. 1998;24(11):1881-937.

Savoia D. Plant-derived antimicrobial compounds: alternatives to antibiotics. Future Microbiol. 2012;7(8):979 90.

Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ. Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial properties of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38(2):99-107.

Scalbert A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry. 1991;30(12):3875-83.

Okuda T. Systematics and health effects of chemically distinct tannins in medicinal plants. Phytochemistry. 2005;66(17):2012-31.

Cimolai N, Cimolai T. The cranberry and the urinary tract. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;26(11):767-76.

Dorman HJ, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol. 2000;88(2):308-16.

Sautour M, Miyamoto T, Lacaille-Dubois MA. Steroidal saponins from Smilax medica and their antifungal activity. J Nat Prod. 2005;68(10):1489-93.

Yang CR, Zhang Y, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Zhang YJ, Li XC. Antifungal activity of C-27 steroidal saponins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(5):1710-4.




How to Cite

Nalubega, R., Nyanzi, S. A., & Nakavuma, J. L. (2017). Comparative study of in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical composition of Sida cuneifolia fruits, leaves, and stem bark extracts. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 3(5), 781–788. Retrieved from



Original Research Articles