Study of rationality and utilization pattern of antimicrobials in ear, nose, throat outpatient department of Tertiary Care Hospital, Nanded

Amol C. Deshmukh, Manik S. Ghadlinge, Saleem B. Tamboli, J. B. Deshmukh, Rajat R. Chhabra


Background: Antimicrobials are most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. Around 50% of the prescriptions of antimicrobial drugs are either not needed, inappropriate or in wrong doses. With the widespread use of antimicrobial agents (AMAs), the prevalence of resistance has increased. To evaluate the prescription pattern and utilization of AMA in ear, nose, throat (ENT) outpatient department (OPD) of Tertiary Care Hospital, Nanded.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted in ENT OPD of Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded over a period of 3 months. During this period, approximately 1100 patients visited ENT OPD and 600 prescriptions were evaluated. The excluded patients were of post-operative follow-up and of patients undergoing medical examination for fitness and handicap certificate. Data were collected by using specially designed case report form. Appropriateness of AMA was assessed by Kunin’s modified criteria.

Results: Total 600 prescriptions were analyzed out of which (91%) consist of AMA. Most of them reported with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) (30.4%), chronic suppurative otitis media (21.4%), acute suppurative otitis media (10.4%), tonsillitis (3.3%), sinusitis (2.7%), and others (15%). Amoxicillin (43.9%) was preferred AMA followed by ciprofloxacin (30.6%), cotrimoxazole (5.8%), azithromycin (3.2%), doxycycline (3.2%) cefixime + clavulanate (3.2%), and amoxicillin + clavulanate (1.8%). Single antibiotic was preferred in all prescriptions. In the concomitant medications, antihistaminics were prescribed in 97.22% of patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 94.96% of patients, and antacids in 87.76% of patients. Fixed-dose combinations were used in 10% of prescriptions. Brand names of AMA were used in 10% of prescriptions. As per the Kunin’s modified criteria, 83% of patients received AMA therapy appropriately, while 17% patients inappropriately.

Conclusions: Amoxicillin is the most common AMA prescribed and URTI is the most common diagnosis made. All AMAs should be prescribed only when needed and should be used in proper dose and for proper duration. Institution wise antibiotic policy should be used to contain resistance. Proper training and regular orientation programs of the juniors’ doctors for judicial use of AMAs will foster the habit of rational prescribing of AMA.


Antimicrobial agents, Kunin’s criteria, Rationality

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