Evaluation of nootropic activity of Curcuma longa leaves in diazepam and scopolamine-induced amnesic mice and rats

Nayana Reddy, Chandrashekar M. Sultanpur, V. Saritha


Background: The present study was undertaken to assess the nootropic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa leaves (HAECL) in diazepam-induced amnesia in mice using Morris water maze method and scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats by using elevated plus maze behavioral paradigm and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were carried out.

Methods: Amnesia was induced by administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) and scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) and treatment groups received HAECL (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) for 14 and 10 days in scopolamine and diazepam-induced amnesia model, respectively. The extent of improvement in memory was measured by behavioral paradigm. Finally, animals were sacrificed, and the whole brain was isolated for estimation of concentration of AChE and reduced GSH levels.

Results: The oral treatment with HAECL with a dose 400 mg/kg has shown an enhancement in the memory function compared to 200 mg/kg.

Conclusion: This could be by inhibiting the levels of cholinesterase concentration  of enzyme and thereby increasing the concentration of acetylcholine level in brain and improving cognition-memory performance.


Hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa leaves, Piracetam, Scopolamine, Diazepam, Morris water maze, Elevated plus maze, Acetylcholinesterase

Full Text:



Fotuhi M. The Memory Cure: how to Protect your Brain against Memory Loss and Alzheimer’s Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2004.

Baddeley AD. Human Memory: theory and Practice. Hove, UK: Psychology Press; 1997.

Trivedi JK. Cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders: current status. Indian J Psychiatry. 2006;48:10-20.

Ingole SR, Satynaran K, Rajput Sharma SS. Cognition enhancer: current strategies and future perspectives. CRIPS. 2008;9:42-8.

Annapurna A, Ramakrishna V, Murali KK, Krishnakumar V, Prasad KB. Studies on nootropic activity of ramipril and losartan on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2004;66(1):31-5.

Bonesi M, Menichini F, Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Conforti F, Passalacqua NG, et al. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Pinus species essential oils and their constituents. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010;25(5):622-8.

Priya R, Prathapan A, Raghu KG, Menon AN. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative potential of essential oil isolated from Curcuma longa L. leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(2):S695-9.

Dhingra D, Kumar V. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine in mice using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2012;2012:357368.

Parle M, Bansal N. Antiamnesic activity of an ayurvedic formulation chyawanprash in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:898593.

Ashwlayan V, Singh R. Reversal effect of Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceace) rasayana on memory deficits in mice. Int J App Pharm. 2013;3(2):10-5.

Sujith K, Darwin CR, Sathish, Suba V. Memory-enhancing activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2(4):307-11.

Srikumar BN, Ramkumar K, Raju TR, Rao BS. Assay of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain. Brain Behav. 2004:142-4.

Shivkurar L, Shivraj G, Rao VN, Shalam, Richa V. Evaluation of nootropic activity of polyherbal formulation SR-105 in experimental animals. Int Res J Pharm. 2011;2(4):101-7.

Chatterjee A, Morris MK, Bowers D, Williamson DJ, Doty L, Heilman KM. Cholinergic treatment of an amnestic man with a basal forebrain lesion; theoretical implications. Neurol Neurosur Psychiatry. 1993;56(12):1282-9.