Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in Delhi, India
Keywords:ADR reporting, Community Pharmacist, Pharmacovigilance
Background: Lack of knowledge of Pharmacovigilance (PhV) and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting culture among the prescribers have been identified as major factors for under reporting of ADRs. In an attempt to increase the reporting many countries have allowed pharmacists to report ADRs. This study was planned to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of PhV among community pharmacist in Delhi, India.
Methods: Cross sectional, questionnaire based study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of PhV among 200 community pharmacists of Delhi (west Delhi) India.
Results: Majority (74%) of the respondents felt that ADR reporting is necessary but only 9% were aware of existing PhV Program of India. Only 5% of pharmacists knew about elements of PhV. Forty percent (40%) of pharmacists did not know where to report ADRs and 26% felt that there is no need to report ADRs. Significant number (77%) of pharmacists felt that ADRs reporting will damage their image. 96% never try to find ADRs and in case if they get ADRs from patients, majority (95%) of them never report to anybody. Almost all (96%) of respondents cited busy schedule as the main reason for non-reporting and 86% said that it will be very convenient if ADRs are collected by someone from them.
Conclusions: Community pharmacists had positive attitude towards ADRs reporting but their knowledge and practice regarding PhV need to be improved. There is a need of regular training to increase their role in PhV.
Patel KJ, Kedia MS, Bajpai D, Mehta SS, Krishnasagar NA, Gogtay NJ. Evalution of the prevalence and economic burden of adverse drug reactions presenting to the medical emergency department of tertiary care referral centre: A prospective study. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;7(1):83.
Rajakannan T, Mallayasamy S, Guddattu V, Kamath A, Vilakkthala R, Rao PG, et al. Cost of adverse drug reactions in a south Indian tertiary care hospital. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;52(4):559-65.
Al Hamid A, Ghaled M, Al jadhey H, Aslanpour Z. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;78(2):202-17.
Khan LM. Comparative epidemiology of hospital-acquired adverse drug reactions in adult and children and their impact on cost and hospital stay-a systematic review. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69(12):1985-96.
Beijer HJ, DeBlaey CJ. Hospitalizations caused by adverse drug reactions (ADRs): A meta-analysis of observational studies. Pharm World Sci. 2002;24(2):46-54.
Sengupta A. Universal Health care in India making it public. Ontario, Canada: IRDC; 2013:23.
Kulkarni RD. Reporting systems for rare side effects of non-narcotic analgesics in India. Problems and opportunities. Med Toxicol. 1986;1(1):110-3.
Gupta YK. Ensuring Patient Safety - Launching the New Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Pharmatimes. 2010;42(8):21-6.
Edwards I, Olsson S. WHO: global monitoring. In: Mann RD, Andrew E, editors. Pharmacovigilance. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2002:169-82.
Ahmad SR. Adverse drug event monitoring at the Food and Drug Administration. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:57-60.
Kalaiselvan V, Prasad T, Singh A. Current Status of Adverse Drug Reactions Monitoring Centres under Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Indian J Pharm Prac. 2014;7:19-22.
Lihite RJ, Lahkar M. An update on the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Front. Pharmacol. 2015;6:194.
Salim M. The Current Perspective of Community Pharmacists towards Pharmacovigilance. J Pharmacovigil. 2015;3:180.
Major E. The yellow card scheme and the role of pharmacists as reporters. Pharm J. 2002;269(7205):25-6.
Shulman JI, Shulman S, Haines AP. The prevention of adverse drug reactions--a potential role for pharmacists in the primary care team? J R Coll Gen Pract. 1981;31(228):429-34.
Available from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Numberofdoctorsontherisebutratiotopatientsstilldismal/articleshowprint/49082531.cms
Rehan HS, Sah RK, Chopra D. Comparison of knowledge, attitude and practices of resident doctors and nurses on adverse drug reaction monitoring and reporting in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44(6):699-703.
Bhagavathula AS, Elnour AA, Jamshed SQ. Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Pharmacovigilance in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2016 Jan;11(3):e0152221.
Murdaugh LB. Competence Assessment Tools for Health-System Pharmacies. (4th ed), American Society of Health System Pharmacists, USA: 2007:439-40.
Zolezzi M, Parsotam N. Adverse drug reaction reporting in New Zealand: implications for
pharmacists. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2005;1(3):181-8.
Parthasarathy G, Karin NH, Milap N. Clinic Pharmacy Book: Essential Concepts and Skills. Hyderabad: Universities Press; 2008:43-53.
Suyagh M, Farah D, Farha RA. Pharmacist’s knowledge, practice and attitudes toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting process. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2015;23:147-53.
Nagaraju K, Satheesh KV, Shankar U, Banu R. Creating Awareness of Adverse Drug Reactions in Community Pharmacists. Indian J Pharm Practice. 2015;8(2):72-7.
Prakasam A, Nidamanuri A, Kumar S. Knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in South India. Pharmacy Practice. 2012;10(4):222-6.
Bawazir AS. Attitude of community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia towards ADR reporting. Saudi Pharma J. 2006 Jan;1(14):75-83.
Tandon VR, Mahajan V, Khajuria V, Gullani Z. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: A challenge for pharmacovigilance in India. Indian J Pharmacol. 2015;47(1):65-71.
Kumari S, Senthilkumar P. Comparison of knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance between industrial and hospital pharmacists. Int J Pharm. 2015;5(4):1091-102.