The Antidepressant like action of ethanolic extract of areca catechu on behavioral models of depression in rats


  • Manohar M. Bende Department of Pharmacology,GMC Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India
  • Sujata Dudhgaonkar Department of Pharmacology, SVNGMC Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India
  • Raviraj S. Jagdhani Department of Pharmacology, SVNGMC Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India
  • Naren P. Bachewar Department of Pharmacology, SVNGMC Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India



Areca catechu ethanolic extract, Fluoxetine, Forced swim test, Tail suspension test, Anti-depression activity, Immobility time (sec)


Background: The objective was to investigate the anti-depressant like activity of areca catechu nut ethanolic extract (ACEE) using behavioural tests in rats.

Methods: Forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to assess the anti-depressant like effect of ACEE rats. Motor coordination was also assessing using rota-rod test in rats to see generalised CNS depression. Fluoxetine was the reference standard drug. Rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group namely control group, fluoxetine 10 mg/kg group, ACEE 50 mg/kg group and fluoxetine 5 mg/kg plus ACEE 25 mg/kg. All treatments were administered orally.

Results: The areca nut ethanolic extract (ACEE) (50mg/kg oral) exhibited anti-depressant like activity i.e. decrease the duration of immobility time (sec) in acute forced swim test (FST) and in acute tail suspension test (TST) in rats (104±1.7, 95%CI 99.65 to 108.4, p <0.01) Vs control and (136.3±1.94, 95%CI 131.3 to 141.3, p<0.01) Vs control respectively. ACEE in low dose of 25 mg potentiated the anti-depressant activity of low dose fluoxetine 5 mg/kg in both the test 102.3±2.60, CI 95.64 to 109.0 p<0.01) Vs control. The ACEE did not produce motor incoordination in rats.

Conclusions: The results of present study suggest that the areca catechu nut ethanolic extract 50mg/kg possess potential anti-depression like effect without generalized CNS depression. Further studies are needed to confirm this.


Ahsana D, Shagufta K. Behavioral and Biochemical Studies of can be attributed toenhancement of serotonin and Dichloromethane Fraction from the Areca catechu nut. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2000;65(1):1-6.

Pytka K, Podkowa K, Rapacz A, Podkowa A, Zmudzka E, Olczyk A. The role of serotonergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors in antidepressant like effect. Pharmacol Rep. 2016;68:263-74.

Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in mice: a primary screening test for anti-depressants. Archives Internationals de pharmacodynamics ET Thetapie, 1977;229(2):327-36.

Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: A primary screening test for antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985;85:367-70.

Pytka K, Dziubina A, Mlyniec K, Dziedziczak A, Zmudzka E, Furgala A. The role of glutaminergic, GABA-ergic, and cholinergic receptors in depression and antidepressant like effect. Pharmacol Rep. 2016;68:443-50.

Dang H, Chen Y, Liu X. Antidepressant effect of ginseng total saponin in forced swim test And chronic mild stress model of depression. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:1417-24.

Ara I, Bano S. St. John’s Wort modulates brain regional serotonin metabolism in swim stressed rats. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009;22:94-101.

Gautam RK, Dixit PK, Mittal S. Herbal Sources of Antidepressant Potential: A Review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2013;18(1):86-91.

Cryan JF, Markou A, Lucki I. Assessing antidepressant activity in rodents: recent developments and future needs. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002;23(5):238-45.

Abbas G, Naqvi S, Erum S, Ahmed S, Atta-ur-Rahman, Dar A. Potential antidepressant activity of Areca catechu nut via elevation of serotonin and noradrenaline in the hippocampus of rats. Phytother Res. 2013;27(1):39-45.

Sarris J, Panossian A, Schweitzer I, Stough C. Andrew Scholey Herbal Medicine in Depression, Anxiety and Insomnia: A Review of Psychopharmacology and Clinical Evidence. European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;21(12):841-60.

Pytka K, Zmudzka E, Lustyk K, Rapacz A, Olczyk A, Galuszka A, et al. The antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of new xanthone derivative with piperazine moiety in behavioral tests in mice. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2016;48(3):286-91.

Lin KH, Lin CY, Liu CC, Chou MY, Lin JK. Arecoline N-oxide: its mutagenicity and possible role as ultimate carcinogen in areca oral carcinogenesis. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59(7):3420-8.

Sharan RN, Mehrotra R, Choudhury Y, Asotra K. Association of Betel Nut with Carcinogenesis: Revisit with a Clinical Perspective. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42759.

Gupta PC, Ray CS. Epidemiology of betel quid usage. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004;33(4):31-6.

Dar A, Khatoon S, Rahman G, Atta-Ur-Rahman. Anti-depressant activities of Areca catechu fruit extract. Phytomedicine. 1997;4(1):41-5.

Kulkarni SK. Hand Book of Experimental Pharmacology, 3rd edition. pp. 131-139.




How to Cite

Bende, M. M., Dudhgaonkar, S., Jagdhani, R. S., & Bachewar, N. P. (2017). The Antidepressant like action of ethanolic extract of areca catechu on behavioral models of depression in rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 5(5), 2098–2102.



Original Research Articles