Knowledge towards antibiotic usage among paramedics and non-medical personnels of a tertiary care hospital


  • Pranjit Narzaree Department of Pharmacology, Pt. B.D.Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India
  • M. C. Gupta Department of Pharmacology, Pt. B.D.Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India



Knowledge, Self-medication, Antibiotic usage


Background: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, self-medication behaviour and attitudes toward antibiotic usage among paramedics and non-medical working staff of a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed using a self-administered questionnaire to access the knowledge, self-medication behaviour and attitude towards antibiotics usages among the two groups of participants from paramedics and non- medical working staff of PGIMS Rohtak administration.

Results: All the participants from paramedics (100%) were aware of the term antibiotics and antibiotic resistance compared to the non-medical personnels. Non-medical staffs (86%) were aware of the term antibiotics but their understanding about antibacterial resistance was only 44 %. Majority of participants have self-medication experiences (86% and 84% for paramedics and non-medical staff respectively). Antibiotics were used by both the groups for symptomatic treatment of various clinical conditions without any rationale justifications. The major reason for not visiting medical practitioner was cost saving and convenience (non-medical staff 80% and paramedics 60%. Antibiotics were mainly obtained from the community pharmacist (non-medical staff 100% and paramedics 68%).

Conclusions: Self-medication practice was prevalent among the participants and lack of up-to-date knowledge was the major areas of concern. Antibiotic awareness should reach every corner of our society for prevention of antibiotic resistance.


Femi-Oyewo MN, Adejumo OE, Hassan SA. Self medication pattern among students of olabisi onabanjo University, ogun State. Nig. J. Pharm. 2002;1(1):17-20.

Phalke VD, Phalke DB, Durgawale PM. Self-medication practices in rural Maharashtra. Indian J Community Med. 2006;31:34-5.

World Health Organization (2000) Guidelines for the regulatory assessmentof medicinal products for use in self-medication. WHO/EDM/QSM/00.1.

Bronzwaer SL, Cars O, Buchholz U. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:278–82.

Bauchner H, Pelton SI, Klein JO. Parents, physicians, and antibiotic use. Pediatrics. 1999;103:395–401.

Seppala H, Klaukka T, Vuopio-Varkila J, Muotiala A, Helenius H, Lager K, et al. The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. Finnish study group for antimicrobial resistance. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:441–6.

Austin DJ, Kristinsson KG, Anderson RM. The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:1152–6.

Ehigiator O, Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Ezeja EB, Ehigiator L. Self-medication practices among dental, midwifery and nursing students. Eur J Gen Dentistry. 2013;2:54–7.

Klemenc-Ketis Z, Hladnik Z, Kersnik J. A cross sectional study of sex differences in self-medication practices among university students in Slovenia. Coll Antropol. 2011;35(2):329–34.

Burak LJ, Damico A. College students’ use of widely advertised medications. J Am Coll Health. 2000;49(3):118–21.

Self-medication popular among medical students: AIIMS study. Available:

Politics/XcN44QD5g8aW4dwltcUdtI/. Accessed on 01 August 2016.

Spellberg B, Guidos R, Gilbert D. for the infectious Diseases Society of America. The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(2):155-64.

Sarkar P, Gould IM. Antimicrobial agents are societal drugs: how should this influence prescribing? Drugs. 2006;66(7):893-901.

Levy SB. Antibiotic resistance—the problem intensifies. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2005;57(10);1446-50.

Saradamma RD, Higginbotham N, Nichter M: Social factors influencing the acquisition of Antibiotics without prescription in Kerala State, south India. Soc Sci Med. 2000;50(6):891-903.

Otoom S, Sequeira RP. The respondents' knowledge about appropriate self-medication was poor, but knowledge.

Maragakis LL, Perencevich EN, Cosgrove SE: Clinical and economic burden of antimicrobial resistance. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6:751-63.

Radyowijati A, Haak H: Determinants of antimicrobial use in the developing world. In Child Health Special Report.Washington, DC: USAID Bureau of Global Health; 2002.

Narzaree P, Gupta MC. A critical appraisal of medication package inserts. Int J Pharmacol Res. 2015;5(10):226-30.

Steinberg I. Clinical Choices of Antibiotics: Judging Judicious Use. The American Journal of Managed Care. 2000;6(23):1178-88.

Vila J, Pal T. Update on antibacterial resistance in low-income countries: Factors favouring the emergence of resistance. Open Infect. Dis. J. 2010;4:38–54.

Harbarth S, Samore MH. Antimicrobial resistance determinants and future control. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2005:11;794–801.




How to Cite

Narzaree, P., & Gupta, M. C. (2017). Knowledge towards antibiotic usage among paramedics and non-medical personnels of a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 5(5), 1929–1936.



Original Research Articles