A study on the clinico-epidemiological profile and the outcome of snake bite cases in the tertiary care hospital

Punam A. Gosavi, Jugalkishore B. Jaju, Ganesh R. Pawar, Shrikant C. Dharmadhikari, Vishal M. Ubale, Sonal M. Parekar


Background: Snake bite is a common medical emergency and an occupational hazard in India. It is also a major public health issue in rural India where farming is a major source of employment. Very few studies describe epidemiology of snake bite from India. Hence, this study was planned to collect information on various aspects of snake bite in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: A prospective observational study of 167 patients of snake bite and unknown bite carried out from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013.

Results: Among a total 167 cases, majority were males (54.49%), aged between 20 and 40 years (38.92%). Most of the cases were laborers (61.67%) and farmers (17.36%). Peak incidence was observed during monsoon (64.67%). Bite mark was seen in 46.70% cases, upper extremity being common site (52.09%). Most cases were of vasculotoxic bite (65.26%) and few were of neurotoxic bite (19.76%). Major complications were respiratory failure (4.79%) and acute renal failure (1.8%). Average bite to needle time was 365 min. Bleeding & clotting time was raised in 44.03% & 35.19% cases, respectively. Average dose of anti-snake venom (ASV) required was 17.1 vials. Allergic reactions to ASV observed in 8.38% cases. Mean duration of hospital stay was 4.3 days. Recovery rate was 94.01% with three cases referred to higher center. Mortality rate was 2.39%.

Conclusions: Our study highlights various aspect of snake bite cases and tries to find out ways to improve quality of life of patients, decrease mortality and morbidity and decrease economic burden on society.


Epidemiology, Snake-bite, Anti-snake venom, Outcome

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