DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20194275

Nephroprotection of Withania somnifera root extract against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity: a histological evaluation in experimental Wistar rats

Vimlesh Kushwaha

Abstract


Background: Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside group of drug, used against aerobic gram negative bacteria, is known for nephrotoxicity. Herbal products have a special place in the world of pharmaceuticals with their safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots had known since long for its antioxidant status and free radical scavenging property. So W. somnifera can be used as nephroprotective agent because of free radical scavenging property.

Methods: Total 54 rats were randomised in 3 groups named G10, G20 and G30 according to 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. In each groups, rats were randomly assigned to any of the three subgroups i.e., control C group [received normal saline (2 ml/100 gm/day) orally consecutively for test duration], gentamicin treated GT group [received normal saline (2 ml/100 gm/day) orally consecutively for test duration and intraperitoneal gentamicin (40 mg/kg) once daily for last five days] and W. somnifera treated WST group [received W. somnifera orally (500 mg/kg/day) for the test duration and intraperitoneal gentamicin (40 mg/kg) once daily for last five days]. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose of gentamicin injection. Excised kidneys were weighted and prepared for histological examination.

Results: The mean weight of kidneys in GT group was significantly higher than the WST group in all test durations indicating the antioxidant and free radical scavenging property. This was also reflected histologically as WST group kidney showed less amount inflammation as compared to GT group.

Conclusions: W. somnifera root extract provide nephroprotection against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.

 


Keywords


Nephroprotection, Gentamicin, Withania somnifera, Ashwagandha, Tubular epithelium

Full Text:

PDF

References


Definition of Aminoglycoside: Available at: www.merriam-webster.com/medical/aminoglycoside. Accessed on 10 September 2018.

Swain RA, Kaplan-Machlis B. Therapeutic uses of vitamin E in prevention of atherosclerosis. Altern Med Rev. 1999;4:414-23.

Du XH, Yang CL. Mechanism of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats and protective effect of zinc induced metallothionein synthesis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9:135-40.

Humes HD, Weinberg JM. Toxic Nephropathies: The Kidney. In: Rector FC, Brenner BM. W. B. Philadelphia: Saunders Co.; 1986: 1491-1532.

Cuzzocrea S, Mazzon E, Dugo L. A role for superoxide in gentamicin-mediated nephropathy in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;450:67-76.

Al-Majed AA, Mostafa AM, Al-Rikabi AC, Al-Shabanah OA. Protective effects of oral arabic gum administration on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2002;46:445-51.

Lakshmi MS, Reddy UK, Rani S. A review on medicinal plant for nephroprotective activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5:251.

Shinwari MI, Khan MA. Indigenous use of medicinal trees and shrubs of Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad. Pak J Forest. 1998;48:63-90.

Gaurav N, Kumar A, Tyagi M, Kumar D, Chauhan UK, Singh AP. Morphology of withania somnifera (Distribution, Morphology, Phytosociology of Withania somnifera L. Dunal). Int J Curr Sci Res. 2015;1:164-73.

Dhuley JN. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;70:57-63.

Elsakka M, Grigoreseu E, Stanescu U, Dorneanu V. New data referring to chemistry of Withania somnifera species. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat lasi. 1990;94:358-87.

Prakash J, Gupta SK, Dinda AK. Withania somnifera root extract prevents DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice. Nutr Cancer. 2002;42:91-7.

Lavi D, Glotter E, Shro Y. Constituents of Withania somnifera Dun, The structure of Withaferin A. Journal Chem Soc. 1965;30:7517-531.

OECD Guidelines for testing chemicals. acute oral toxicity-acute toxic class method. Available at: http://www.iccvam.niehs.nih.gov/SuppDocs/FedDocs/OECD/OECD_GL423.pdf. Accessed on 10 September 2018.

Zbigniew K, Przemystaw K, Morys J. General anaesthesia in rats undergoing experiments on the central nervous system. Folia Morphol. 2001;60(4):235-42.

Talib VH. A handbook of medical laboratory technology. 2nd edition. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2007: 155-167.

Erdem A, Gundogan M, Usubutun A, Kilinc K, Erdem S, Kara A, et al. The protective effect of taurine against gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000:1175-82.

Houghton DC, Hartnett M, Cambell-Boswell M, Poeter G, Bennett WA. Light and electron microscopic analysis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Am J Path. 1976;82:589-612.

Bellomo R. The epidemiology of acute renal failure: 1975 versus 2005. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2006;12(6):557-60.

Guo X, Nzerue C. How to prevent, recognize, and treat drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Cleve Clin J Med. 2002;69(4):289-90, 293-4, 296-7.

Begg EJ, Barclay ML. Aminoglycosides-50 years on. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1995;39(6):597-603.

Luft FC. Clinical significance of renal changes engendered by aminoglycosides in man. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1984;13(SA):23-30.

Lee SM, Michael UP. The protective effect of nitrindipine on gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats. Exp Mol Path. 1985;43:107-14.

Tulkens PM. Nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Toxicol Letters. 1989;46:107-23.

Bennett WM, Elzinger LW, Porter GA. Tubulo-interstitial disease and toxic nephropathy. In: Brenner BM, Rector JRFC, eds. The Kidney. Philadelphia: Saunders Co.; 1986.

Jeyanthi T, Subramanian P. Nephroprotective effect of Withania somnifera: a dose- dependent study. Renal failure. 2009;31(9):814-21.

Ichikawa H, Takada Y, Shishodia S, Jayaprakasam B, Nair MG, Aggarwal BB. Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression. Mol Cancer Therap. 2006;5(6):1434-45.

Uehara T, Miyoshi T, Tsuchiya N, Masuno K, Okada M, Inoue S, et al. Comparative analysis of gene expression between renal cortex and papilla in nedaplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26(10):767-80.

Laskshmi BV, Sudhakar M. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Ind J Pharmacol. 2010;6:58-62.