Evaluation of antiatherogenic effect of Alternanthera brasiliana Linn kuntz in rats on atherogenic diet
Keywords:Alternanthera brasiliana, Antiatherogenic, Atorvastatinflavonoids, Methanolic extract
Background: Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor for systemic atherosclerosis and a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular diseases and its complications which is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. In a recent study, the antihyperlipidemic activity of dried leaves extract of Alternanthera brasiliana has been evaluated. Hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic potential of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntz (MEAB) in high fat diet induced hypercholesterolemic rat model.
Methods: Thirty (30) wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: first two groups received normal diet and high fat diet respectively and the remaining three groups received high fat diet supplemented with methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana (MEAB) administered orally daily at two different doses: 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and Atorvastatin 10 mg/kg/day orally as standard respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was estimated after 12 weeks. Atherogenic index was calculated from the results of lipid profile. At the end, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plagues.
Results: Our results showed that MEAB possessed significant cholesterol lowering potency as indicated by decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) accompanied by an increase in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and reduces the atherosclerotic lesion of aorta (p <0.05).Conclusions: These results strongly suggests that MEAB can prevent the progress of atherosclerosis likely due to the effect of A. brasiliana on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It could be a potential therapy for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Prabha SP, Ansil PN, Nitha A, Wills PJ, Latha MS. Anti-atherogenic activity of methanolic extract of Gardenia gummifera Linn. f. on high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2013;5(2):388-93.
Shah P, Bajaj S, Virk H, Bikkina M, Shamoon F. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review. Thrombosis: 2015;6.
Duarte MD, Debur MD. Characters of the leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) O. Kuntz, Amaranthaceae. Brazilian J Pharmaceut Sci. 2004;40(1):85-92.
Kumar S, Singh P, Mishra G, Srivastav S, Jha KK, Khosa RL. Phytopharmacological review of Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae). Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2011;1(1):41-7.
Samudrala PK, Augustine BB, Kasala ER, Bodduluru LN, Barua C, Lahkar M. Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. Pharmacognosy Res. 2015;7(1):66-73.
Barua CC, Begum SA, Pathak DC, Bora RS. Wound healing activity of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze and its anti-oxidant profiles in experimentally induced diabetic rats. J Applied Pharmaceut Sci. 2013 Oct 1;3(10):161.
Formagio EL, Mendel MT, Fracasso R, Knobloch JG et al. Evaluation of the Pharmacological activity of the Alternanthera brasiliana aqueous extract. Pharmaceut Biol. 2012;50(11):1442-7.
Kumar S, Jha KK, Verma M, Kumar A, Kumar D. Fructose induced antihyperlipidemic activity of dried leaves extract of Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntz in wistar rats. The J Phytopharmacol. 2012;1(1):71-81.
Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 2011;1(1):98-106.
Shyamala MP, Venukumar MR, Latha MS. Antioxidant potential of the Syzygium aromatic Linn in rats fed with high fat diet. Indian J Pharmacol. 2003;35:99-103.
Organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). Health effects Test no. 425: Acute toxicity up and down procedure. OECD Guidelines for testing of chemicals. Section 4. France: OECD Publishing. 2006:1-27.
Srinivas M, Annapurna A, Reddy YN. Antiatherosclerotic effect of Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel alone and in combination in rats. Indian J Experiment Biol. 2008;46:698-703.
Parasuraman S, Raveendran R, Kesavan R. Blood sample collection in small laboratory animals. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2010;1(2):87-93.
Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974 Apr;20(4):470-5.
Pelisoli Formagio EL, Mendel MT, Fracasso R, Knobloch JG, Teixeira PW, Kehl L, et al. Evaluation of the pharmacological activity of the Alternanthera brasiliana aqueous extract. Pharmaceut biol. 2012 Nov 1;50(11):1442-7.
Grillo F, Izzo C, Mazzotti G, Murador E. Improved method for determination of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol II. Enzymic determination of cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein fractions with a sensitive reagent. Clin Chem. 1981 Mar;27(3):375-9.
Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Freidrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of LDL cholesterol in plasma, without the use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499-502.
Schulpis K, Karkas GA. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride distribution in 7737 school aged Greek children. Paediatrics. 1998;101(5):861-64.
Beers RF Jr, Sizer IW. A spectrophotographic method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem. 1952;195(1):133-40.
Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin Chem Acta. 1978;90(1):37-43.
Miller YI, Tsimikao S. Lipoprotein oxidation and modification. Ballantyne Clinical Lipidology. 1st Ed. Saunders; 2009:93-110.
Robinson JG. Pharmacologic treatment of dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease in The John Hopkins Textbook of Dyslipidaemia. 1st Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2010:266-76.
Munshi RP, Joshi SG, Rane BN. Development of an experimental diet model in rats to study hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, markers for coronary heart disease. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014 May-Jun;46(3):270-6.
Sravanthi P, Shakir Barsha S. Anti-atherosclerotic activity of ethanolic extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flowers against high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in male wistar rats. Asian J Pharmaceut Clin Res. 2017;10(9):52-56.
Mulvihill EE, Huff MW. Antiatherogenic properties of flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health. Can J Cardiol. 2010 Mar;26 Suppl A:17A-21A.
Lee KH, Park E, Lee HJ, Kim MO, Cha YJ, Kim JM, et al. Effects of daily quercetin-rich supplementation on cardiometabolic risks in male smokers. Nutr Res Pract. 2011 Feb;5(1):28-33.
Unnikrishnan MK, Veerapur V, Nayak Y, Mudgal PP, Mathew G. Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of the Flavonoids in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease. Elsevier Inc. 2013;1:143-61.
Kumar V, Abbas A, Aster J. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th Ed. Philadelphia:Elsevier Saunders; 2019:26-26.