Self medication among medical and dental students in tertiary care teaching hospital of Udaipur, India


  • Hiren M. Chawda Department of Pharmacology, Pacific Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Ashwinkumar K. Panchasara Department of Pharmacology, GMERS Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India



Dental students, India, Medical students, Self-medication


Background: Self‐medication involves acquiring and consuming medication without the advice of a physician and also resubmitting old prescriptions to purchase medicines. Inappropriate self‐medication causes increase cost of therapy and incidence of adverse drug reactions. Self-medication was significantly higher among undergraduate medical and paramedical students in India. Objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication and perception towards self-medication among the undergraduate medical and dental students.

Methods: A pre-designed questionnaire collected the information pertaining to demographic details like age, gender, course, reason, pattern, indications, drugs used for self‐medication. It also included questions concerning their attitude, perception and safety regarding self-medication.

Results: The prevalence of self - medication was 76.27%. Larger numbers of females were self-medicating (55.56%). The majority of the students’ self-medicated because of other advice (92.59%), there was statistically significant difference between the male and female medical students to use a previous prescription for the same illness. A total of 136 (76.83%) of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care. Statistically significant differences between male and female students had been observed in safety variables like, “know side effects about your drug”, “increasing drug dose can be dangerous” and “in case of side effects physicians’ help must be sought”. Cold and Cough was the most common (60%) indication for self-medication.

Conclusions: The prevalence of self-medication was higher among females. The majority of the students’ self-medicated because of other advice. The stringent policies should be required for medicines which can prevent the increasing trend of self-medicating.


Cushing H. The life of Sir William Osler. 2nd Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press;1925.

Guidelines for the regulatory assessment of medicinal products for use in Self medication, WHO; 2000. Available at: Accessed: 2013 Feb 26.

Loyola Fil ho AI, Lima-Costa MF, Uchoa E. Bambuí project: a qualitative approach to self-medication. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20:1661-9.

Klemenc-Ketis Z, Hladnik Z, Kersnik J. A cross sectional study of sex differences in self-medication practices among university students in Slovenia. Coll Antropol. 2011;35:329-34.

Burak LJ, Damico A. College students’ use of widely advertised medications. J Am Coll Health. 2000;49:118-21.

James H, Handu SS, Khalid AJ, Khaja A, Otoom S, Sequeira RP. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practice of self‐medication among first‐year medical students. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:270-5.

Hughes CM, McElnay JC, Fleming GF. Benefits and risks of self-medication. Drug Saf. 2001;24:1027-37.

Hem E, Stokke G, Reidar TR, Grønvold NT, Vaglum P, Ekeberg O. Self‐prescribing among young Norwegian doctors: a nine‐year follow‐up study of a nationwide sample. BMC Med. 2005;3:16.

Kiyingi KS, Lauwo JAK. Drugs in home: danger and waste. World Health Forum. 1993;14:381-4.

Ehigiator O, Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Ezeja EB, Ehigiator L, Madukwe IU. Self-medication practices among dental, midwifery and nursing students. Eur J Gen Dentistry. 2013;2:54-7.

Badiger S, Kundapur R, Jain A, Kumar A, Pattanshetty S, Thakolkaran, et al. Self-medication pattern among medical students in South India. AMJ. 2012;5:217-20.

Self-medication popular among medical students. AIIMS study. Available at: among-medical-students-AIIMS-study.html. Accessed 27 Feb 2013.

Bekele BB, Berkesa ST, Tefera E, Kumalo A. Self-Medication Practice in Limmu Genet, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: Does Community Based Health Insurance Scheme Have an Influence? J Pharma. [Internet]. February 2018:8. Available at:

Tenaw A, Tsige GM. Self-medication practices in Addis ababa: a prospective study. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2004;14:1-11.

World Health Organization, Guidelines for the Regulatory Assessment of Medicinal Products for Use in Self-Medication, in World Health Organization, World Health Organization; 2000.

The Role of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication. Available at: http:// Accessed: 2013 Feb 27.

Joint Statementby the International Pharmaceutical Federation and The World Self-Medication Industry. Available at: =241andtable_id. Accessed: 2013 Feb 27.

Dangers of Self-Medication. Available at: /15933 /1/Dangers-of-Self-Medication.html. Accessed: 2013 Feb 28.

Kumar N, Kanchan T, Unnikrishnan B, Rekha T, Mithra P, Kulkarni V, et al. Perceptions and Practices of Self-Medication among Medical Students in Coastal South India. PLoS ONE, 2013;8:1-5.

Banerjee I, Bhadury T. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal. J Postgrad Med. 2012;58:127-31.

Sontakke SD, Bajait CS, Pimpalkhute SA, Jaiswal KM, Jaiswal SR. Comparative study of evaluation of self-medication practices in first and third year medical students. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2:561-64.

Badiger S, Kundapur R, Jain A, Kumar A, Pattanshetty S, Thakolkaran N, et al. Self-medication patterns among medical students in South India. Australas Med J. 2012;5:217-20.

Kayalvizhi S, Senapathi R. Evaluation of the perception, attitude and practice of self-medication among business students in 3 select cities, South India. IJEIMS. 2010;1:40-4.

Abay SM, Amelo W. Assessment of self-medication practices among medical, pharmacy, and health science students in Gondar University, Ethiopia. J Young Pharm. 2010;2:306-10.

Gutema GB, Gadisa DA, Kidanemariam ZA, Berhe DF, Berhe AH, Hadera MG, et al. Self-Medication Practices among Health Sciences Students: The Case of Mekelle University. J Appl Pharmaceutical Sci. 2011;1:183-9.

Smogavec M, Softicˇ N, Kersnik J, Klemenc-Ketisˇ Z. An overview of self treatment and self-medication practices among Slovenian citizens. Slovenian Med J. 2010;79:757-63.

Zafar SN, Syed R, Waqar S, Irani FA, Saleem S. Prescription of medicines by medical Students of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:162-8.

El Ezz NF, Ez-Elarab HS. Knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards self-medication at Ain Shams University, Egypt. J Prev Med Hyg. 2011;52:196-200.

Fadare JO, Tamuno I. Antibiotic self-medication among university medical undergraduates in Northern Nigeria. J Public Health Epidemiol. 2011;3:217-20.

Ali SE, Ibrahim MIM, Palaian S. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia. Pharm Pract. 2010;8:226-32.

Verma RK, Mohan L, Pandey M. Evaluation of self medication among professional students in North India: proper statutory drug control must be implemented. Asian J Pharmaceutical Clin Res. 2010;3:60-4.

Gupta V, Bansal P, Manhas R, Singh Z, Ghaiye P. Preferred system of medicine and reasons of self-medication among college students in Malwa region of Punjab. J Drug Deliv and Ther. 2011;1:27-9.

Sarkar P, Gould IM. Antimicrobial agents are societal drugs: how should this influence prescribing? Drugs. 2006;66:893-901.




How to Cite

Chawda, H. M., & Panchasara, A. K. (2018). Self medication among medical and dental students in tertiary care teaching hospital of Udaipur, India. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 7(8), 1637–1641.



Original Research Articles