Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

B. Akshaya Srikanth, V. Manisree

Abstract


Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives.


Keywords


Oral contraceptives, Hepatotoxicity, Drug toxicity, Combined oral contraceptive pills, hepatic carcinoma, India

Full Text:

PDF

References


Farrel GC. Liver diseases due to environmental Toxins. In: Farrell GC, ed. Drug-Induced liver disease. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1994:511-49.

Bjornsson E. Review article: Drug-induced liver injury in clinical practice. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;32:3-13.

Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiødt FV. Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:947-54.

Zimmerman HJ. Drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2000;4:73-96.

de Abajo FJ, Montero D, Madurga M, García Rodríguez LA. Acute and clinically relevant drug-induced liver injury: a population based case-control study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004;58:71-80.

Bissell DM, Gores GJ, Laskin DL, et al. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Mechanism and test systems. Hepatology 2001;33:1009-13.

Dawe F, Rainford L. Contraception and sexual health 2003. A report on research using the ONS omnibus survey produced by the office for National Statistics on behalf of the Department of Health, London. Office for National Statistics, 2004.

Speroff L, DeCherney A. Evaluation of new generation of oral contraceptives. The Advisory Board for the New Progestins. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:1034-47.

Czaja AJ. Current and future treatments of autoimmune hepatitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009;3:269-91.

Bjornsson E, Talwalkar J, Treeprasertsuk S, et al. Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis: clinical characteristics and prognosis. Hepatology 2010;51:2040-8.

Czaja AJ. Drug-Induced Autoimmune-Like Hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci 2011;56:958-76.

Castiella A, Lucena MI, Zapata E, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis induced by drugs. Gut 2009;58:A198.

Aithal GP, Watkins PB, Andrade RJ, Larrey D, Molokhia M, Takikawa H, et al. Case definition and phenotype standardization in drug-induced liver injury. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011;89:806-15.

Andrade RJ, Robles M, Lucena MI. Rechallenge in drug-induced liver injury: the attractive hazard. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2009;8:709-14.

Suzuki A, Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Miquel R, Smyrk TC, Andrade RJ, et al. The use of liver biopsy evaluation in discrimination of idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis versus drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology 2011;54:931-9.

Goldfarb S. Sex hormones and hepatic neoplasia. Cancer Res 1976;36:2584-8.

Neuberger JM, Davis M, Williams R. Clinical aspects of oral contraceptive associated liver tumours. In: Davis M, Tredger JM, Williams R, editors. Drug Reactions and the Liver. London: Pitman Medical; 1981:271-83.

Ungo JR, Jones D, Ashkin D, Hollender ES, Bernstein D, et al. Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The role of hepatitis C virus and the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1871-6.