Newer drugs in the management of diabetes mellitus
Keywords:GLP-1 Mimetics, DPP-4 Inhibitors, SGLT-2 Inhibitors, Dual PPAR Agonist, Amylin Mimetics
Modern life style with present days technological advances have made human life sedentary. This is causing increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity amongst population. The number of cases of diabetes worldwide in the year 2000 among adults 20 years of age is estimated to be 171 million in recent reports and is said to rise to more than 300 million by 2025. The raised plasma glucose levels give rise to complications in the form of microvascular and macrovascular complications diminished quality of life with reduced life expectancy. The currently available drugs used in the management of type II DM are not completely satisfactory in regard of controlling blood glucose level, many of the times they are associated with undesirable side effects. Hence there is continuous ongoing work in development of newer drugs, which are safe, efficacious and potent as well as free of undesirable effects such as sustained hypoglycaemia. Fortunately there are newer drug, few of them approved while other still knocking the door from the classes of drug such as GLP-1Mimetic, DPP-4 Inhibitors and others. Here we have tried to cover them in brief.
Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global Prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.
Power AC. Diabetes Mellitus. Harrison’s Principle of Internal Medicine. 18th ed.USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2010.
Inzucchi DE, McGuire DK. New Drugs for the Treatment of Diabetes: Part II: Incretin-based therapy and beyond. Circulation 2008;117:574-84.
Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Biology of cretins: GLP1 and GIP. Gastroenterology 2007;132:2131-57.
McGuire DK, Inzucchi SE. New drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus: part I: thiazolidinediones and their evolving cardiovascular implications. Circulation 2008;117:441-50.
Nauck M, Stockmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1986;29:46-52.
Marre M, Penformis A. GLP-1 receptor agonist today. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;93:317-27.
Buse JB, Henry RR, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD; Exenatide-113 Clinical Study Group. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2628-35.
DeFronzo RA, Ratner RE, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1092-100.
Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Therapeutic approaches to preserve islet mass in type 2 diabetes. Annu Rev Med 2006;57:265-81.
Sethi BK, Vishwanathan V, Kumar A, Chatterjee S, Chandalia HB. Liraglutide in clinical practice: Insights from LEAD program. J Assoc Physicians India 2010;58 Suppl:18-22.
Nauck M, Frid A, Hermannsen K, Shah N, Tankova T, Mitha I et al. Efficacy and safety comparision of Liraglutide, Glimiperide, and Placebo, All in combination with Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes care 2009;32:84-90.
Parks M, Rosebraugh C. Weighing risk and benefits of Liraglutide-the FDA’s review of a New antidiabetic therapy. N Engl J Med 2010;362:774-7.
Buse JB, Rosenstock J, Sesti G, Montanya E, Brett JH, Zychma M et al. Liraglutide once a day versus Exenatide twice a day for type2 diabetes: a 26 week randomised, parallel group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6). Lancet 2009;374:39-47.
Richter B, Bandeira EE, Bergerhoff K and Lerch C. Dipeptidyl peptidase – 4 (DPP- 4) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(2):CD006739. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006739.pub2.
Bo Ahren. Dipeptidyl peptidase – 4 inhibitors. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1344-50.
Badyal DK, Kaur J. Sitagliptin: a New Class of Oral Drug for Type 2 Diabetes. J K Science 2008;10:97-8.
Sharma G, Kumar S, Bala I, Meena H, Sharma D, George M et al. Sitagliptin: Promising hope of Pharmacotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. IJBTR 2011;1:17-23.
Satoskar RS, Rege NN, Bhandarkar ST. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. Pancreatic hormones, antidiabetic drugs and pharmacotherapy of Diabetes Mellitus. 22nd edition. Mumbai, Popular Publication:2011:874-905.
Derosa G, Maffioli P. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: 3 years of experience. Diabetes Technol Ther 2012;14:350-64.
He H, Tran P, Yin H, Smith H, Batard Y, Wang L, et al. Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of [14C]vildagliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2009;37:536-44.
Dave DJ. Saxagliptin: A dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011;2:230-5.
Mishra M. SGLT2 inhibitors: a promising new therapeutic option for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Pharm Pharmacol 2012. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01574.x.
Singhal M, Rasania S, Gaur A, Vishnu VM, S. Vijaya Rama, Upadhyay Y. Overview on Sodium Glucose Transport Inhibitors as a Therapeutic Tool Against Diabetes Mellitus. Global J Pharmacol 2012;6:86-93.
White JR. Apple Trees to Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter Inhibitors: A Review of SGLT2 Inhibition. Clin Diabetes 2010;28:5-10.
Tahrani A, Barnett A. Dapagliflozin: a Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor in Development for Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Ther 2010;1:45-56.
Ghosh RK, Ghosh SM, Chawla S, Jasdanwala SA. SGLT2 inhibitors: A new emerging therapeutic class in the treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Pharmacol 2012;52:457-63.
Nair S, Wilding JPH. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors as a New Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:34-42.
Abdul-Ghani MA, Norton L, DeFronzo RA. Role of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT 2) Inhibitors in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Endocrine Rev 2011;32:515-31.
Kruger DF, Gloster MA. Pramlintide for the treatment of insulin requiring diabetes mellitus: rationale and review of clinical data. Drugs 2004;64:1419-32.
Ratner RE, Dickey R, Fineman M, Maggs DG, Shen L, Strobel SA, et al. Amylin replacement with pramlintide as an adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term glycaemic and weight control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2004;21:1204-12.
Pullman J, Darsow T, Frias JP. Pramlintide in the management of insulin-using patients with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2006;2:203-12.
Ryan GJ, Jobe LJ, Martin R. Pramlintide in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Clin Ther 2005;27:1500-12.
Buse JB, Weyer C, Maggs DG. Amylin Replacement with Pramlintide in type 1 and type 2 Diabetes: A physiological approach to overcome barriers with Insulin therapy. Clin Diab 2002;20:137-144.
Gross B, Staels B. PPAR agonists: multimodal drugs for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;21:687-710.
Balakumar P, Rose M, Ganti SS, Krishan P, Singh M. PPAR dual agonists: are they opening Pandora’s box? Pharmacol Res 2007;56:91-8.
Sharma R. Novel dual acting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha and Gamma Agonists. J Clin Diagn Res 2008;2:659-67.
Benardeau A, Benz J, Binggeli A, Blum D, Boehringer M, Grether U, et al. Aleglitazar, a new potent, and balanced dual PPARα/ץ agonist for the treatment of type II diabetes. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009;19:2468-73.
Conlon D. Goodbye glitazars? Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2006;6:135-7.
Younk LM, Uhl L, Davis SN. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of aleglitazar for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with high cardiovascular risk. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2011;7:753-63.
Mahajan R. Bromocriptin mesylate: FDA-approved novel treatment for type-2 diabetes. Indian J Pharmacol 2009;41:197-8.