Pattern of anti-diabetic drugs prescribed in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh


  • Zuhayer Ahmed Global Alliance for Vaccines & Immunization (Gavi), Faridpur, Bangladesh
  • M. A. Hafez Department of Biostatistics,Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • M. A. Bari Department Public Health,ASA University Bangladesh,Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Jesmin Akhter Department Public Health,ASA University Bangladesh,Dhaka, Bangladesh



Drug utilization, Hypoglycemic agents, Tertiary healthcare


Background: Globally, diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. This study was conducted for collecting the demographic details of diabetic patients and determining the pattern of drugs prescribed among them in outpatient department of a tertiary healthcare center.

Methods: A descriptive type of cross-sectional study was carried out at the outpatient department of Endocrinology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from 1 May to 31 July, 2015. Diabetic patients receiving the management for at least 6 months were enrolled and interviewed by the researchers after getting informed written consent. Structured case record form was used for demographic data & prescription details. Data were analysed using computer in SPSS 22 and Microsoft Excel 2010.

Results: Altogether 105 patients, 40 males (38.1%) and 65 females (61.9%) were enrolled with urban predominance (69.5%) where 51 (48.6%) were in the age group 47-61 years with a mean of 53.4 (SD±10.6) years. 70 (66.7%) had diabetic history of less than 5 years and 66 (62.9%) had at least one concurrent illness. Hypertension accounted for majority (34.3%) of complications. On an average, 5.62 (SD±3.16) drugs were advised per prescription for diabetes as well as associated co-morbidities and majority (23.8%) had 4 drugs. The majority of drugs (74.3%) were from local manufacturers. Most patients (62.9%) were prescribed with oral drugs singly. Metformin alone predominated in 41% prescriptions followed by the combination of Metformin and Sitagliptin (31.4%).

Conclusions: The findings can serve as a guide to choose the formulation and combination of anti-diabetic drugs in this part of the world before developing & marketing any new drug.


Afolayan A, Sunmonu T. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition. 2010;47(2):98-106.

Khandelwal N. Prevention and management of Diabetes Mellitus in Ayurveda. Asian journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;2(6). doi:10.15272/ajbps.v2i6.30.

Zargar H, Wani I, Masoodi SR, Laway B, Bashir MI. Mortality in diabetes mellitus--data from a developing region of the world. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 1999;43(1):67-74.

Saquib N, Saquib J, Ahmed T, Khanam MA, Cullen MR. Cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 1995 and 2010. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:434.

Bangladesh Population and Housing Census 2011. Dhaka; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh; 2012.

Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, Shaw J. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2011;94(3):311-21.

Dinesh KU, Subish P, Pranaya M. Pattern of potential drug-drug interactions in diabetic out-patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Nepal. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 2007;62(4):294-8.

Kennedy J, Erb C. Prescription noncompliance due to cost among adults with disabilities in the United States. American journal of public health. 2002;92(7):1120-4.

Daniel W. Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences (10th Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1999;30(7).

Tseng CH. The Epidemiologic Transition of Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: Implications for Reversal of Female Preponderance from a National Cohort. The Open Diabetes Journal. 2009;2:18-23.

Boccuzzi SJ, Wogen J, Fox J, Sung JCY, Shah AB, Kim J. Utilization of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in a Drug-Insured U.S. Population. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(8):1411-5.

Akter S, Rahman MM, Abe SK, Sultana P. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes and their risk factors among Bangladeshi adults: a nationwide survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92(3):204-13.

Abu Sayeed M, Hussain MZ, Rumi MA, Banu A, Azad Khan AK. Effect of socioeconomic risk factors on the difference in prevalence of diabetes between rural and urban populations in Bangladesh. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):551-5.

Shafique S Stallkamp G, de Pee S, Panagides D, Bloem MW. Trends of under- and overweight among rural and urban poor women indicate the double burden of malnutrition in Bangladesh. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:449-57.

Sultana G, Kapur P, Aqil M, Alam MS, Pillai KK. Drug utilization of oral hypoglycemic agents in a university teaching hospital in India. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010;35(3):267-77.

Wu SY, Lung BC, Chang S, Lee SC, Critchley J, Chan JC. Evaluation of drug usage and expenditure in a hospital diabetes clinic. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 1998;23(1):49-56.

Vengurlekar S, Patidar P, Bafna R, Jain S. Prescribing pattern of antidiabetic drugs in indore city hospital. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;70(5):637-40.

Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA, Raskin Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA. The treatment of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(1):134-47.

Patel B, Oza B, Patel K, Malhotra S, Patel V. Pattern of antidiabetic drugs use in type-2 diabetic patients in a medicine outpatient clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;2(4):485.

Shankar RP, Partha P, Shenoy NK, Easow JM, Brahmadathan KN. Prescribing patterns of antibiotics and sensitivity patterns of common microorganisms in the Internal Medicine ward of a teaching hospital in Western Nepal: a prospective study. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials. 2003;2:7.

Alam K, Mishra P, Prabhu M, et al. A study on rational drug prescribing and dispensing in outpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Western Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2006;4(4):436-43.




How to Cite

Ahmed, Z., Hafez, M. A., Bari, M. A., & Akhter, J. (2016). Pattern of anti-diabetic drugs prescribed in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 5(1), 6–12.



Original Research Articles