DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20183502

Apalutamide: a better option for the treatment of non-metastatic castration resistant prostatic carcinoma

Raushan Kumar Ranjan, Akash Chandra

Abstract


Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include older age, a family history of the disease, and race. About 99% of cases occur in males over the age of 50. Clinical features include hematuria, dysuria (painful urination),nocturia(urination at night). Lower blood levels of vitami D may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Infection with the sexually transmitted diseases, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and prostatitis seem to increase risk of prostate cancer. Diagnosis can be confirmed by digital rectal examination (DRE) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, cystoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography and biopsy (The removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination). Medicines like 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) reduce the overall risk of prostate cancer. Apalutamide, sold under the brand name Erleada, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. It is specifically indicated for use in conjunction with castration in the treatment of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC). It is taken by mouth. Apalutamide was first described in 2007 and was approved for the treatment of prostate cancer in February 2018. Apalutamide is used in conjunction with castration, either via bilateral orchiectomy or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue) therapy, as a method of androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC).


Keywords


Prostatitis, Nonsteroidal antiandrogen, Non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Full Text:

PDF

References


Miller DC, Hafez KS, Stewart A, Montie JE, Wei JT. Prostate carcinoma presentation, diagnosis, and staging: an update form the National Cancer Data Base. Cancer. September 2003;98(6):1169-78.

van der Cruijsen-Koeter IW, Vis AN, Roobol MJ, Wildhagen MF, de Koning HJ, van der Kwast TH, et al. Comparison of screen detected and clinically diagnosed prostate cancer in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer, section rotterdam. Urol. July 2005;174(1):121-5. PMID 15947595.

Hankey BF, Feuer EJ, Clegg LX, Hayes RB, Legler JM, Prorok PC, et al. Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in prostate cancer- part I: Evidence of the effects of screening in recent prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates. J Natl Cancer Inst. June 1999;91(12):1017-24.

Seruga B, Ocana A, Tannock IF. Drug resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. January 2011;8(1):12-23.

de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels JP, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. October 2010;376(9747):1147-54.

Dellis AE, Papatsoris AG. Apalutamide: The established and emerging roles in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. June 2018. (PMID 29856649).

Joseph JD, Lu N, Qian J, Sensintaffar J, Shao G, Brigham D, et al. A clinically relevant androgen receptor mutation confers resistance to second-generation antiandrogens enzalutamide and ARN-509. Cancer Discovery. September 2013;3(9):1020-9. (PMID 23779130).

Moilanen AM, Riikonen R, Oksala R, Ravanti L, Aho E, Wohlfahrt G, et al. Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanism to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies. Scientific Reports. July 2015;5:12007. (PMID 26137992).

Ivachtchenko AV, Mitkin OD, Kudan EV, Rjahovsky AA, Vorobiev AA, Trifelenkov AS, et al. Preclinical Development of ONC1-13B, Novel Antiandrogen for Prostate Cancer Treatment. Journal of Cancer. 2014;5(2):133-42. (PMID 24494031).

Clegg NJ, Wongvipat J, Joseph JD, Tran C, Ouk S, Dilhas A, et al. ARN-509: a novel antiandrogen for prostate cancer treatment. Cancer Research. March 2012;72(6):1494-503. (PMID 22266222).

Pinto Á. Beyond abiraterone: new hormonal therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Biology and Therapy. February 2014;15(2):149-55. (PMID 24100689).

Cockshott ID. Bicalutamide: clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(13):855-78. (PMID 15509184).

Rathkopf DE, Morris MJ, Fox JJ, Danila DC, Slovin SF, Hager JH, et al. Phase I study of ARN-509, a novel antiandrogen, in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. October 2013;31(28):3525-30. PMC 3782148. (PMID 24002508).

Tran C, Ouk S, Clegg NJ, Chen Y, Watson PA, Arora V, et al. Development of a second-generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Science. 2009;324(5928):787-90. PMC 2981508. (PMID 19359544).

Rathkopf DE, Morris MJ, Fox JJ, Danila DC, Slovin SF, Hager JH, et al. Phase I study of ARN-509, a novel antiandrogen, in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(28):3525-30. PMC 3782148. (PMID 24002508).

Smith, MR, Liu G, Shreeve SM, Matheny S, Sosa A, Kheoh TS, et al. A randomized double-blind, comparative study of ARN-509 plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT alone in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (M0-CRPC): The SPARTAN trial; 2014.