Standardization of ethanol addiction model in Swiss albino Mice

Tanvi M. Chotai, Sarita M. Kapgate


Background: Addiction is compulsive need for use of a habit-forming substance. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that worldwide 3.3 million people died due to alcohol addiction in 2012-13 and 11% of the population in India indulged in heavy drinking in 2014. Addiction is a prime socio-economical problem of society. Studying alcohol dependence in humans involved many ethical issues and experimental difficulties. Hence nonhuman animal experimental model has been used for a research on the topic of alcohol intoxication and dependence. Ethanol dependence has been preferred to develop in genetically modified strain of mice, C-57 which has a natural inclination to consume and develop addiction. But studying addiction in this special strain requires top end experimental facilities and financial aids. Authors reported the animal model to study ethanol dependence in Swiss albino mice. Aim of the study was to develop ‘Ethanol Dependence in Swiss albino mice animal model’ by intermitted access of 20% ethanol.

Methods: Dependence was developed in Swiss albino mice by intermitted access of 20% ethanol in two groups having six animals in each group. Dependence was confirmed by presence of the withdrawal symptoms like anxiety, muscular incoordination and behavioral changes of animals on abstinence of ethanol.

Results: Significant difference was noted on withdrawal symptoms, i.e. anxiety, muscular coordination, muscle spasm and other behavior related to withdrawal.

Conclusions: Ethanol dependence can be successfully developed in Swiss albino mice in 14 days.


Ethanol dependence, Swiss albino mice

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health, 2014: XIV ed. Available at:,+2014:+XIV&ots=PbpEHkQ0zI&sig=UtNWKCmir9l7EUtOXMrPvzbm_Mg#v=onepage&q=World%20Health%20Organization.%20Global%20status%20report%20on%20alcohol%20and%20health%2C%202014%3A%20XIV&f=false. Accessed 18 January 2018.

WHO Report-2014. Alcohol consumption in India on the rise. Available at: accessed 18 January 2018.

Social Effects of an Addiction - Drug Addiction; 2018. Available at: Accessed 18 January 2018

Jadhav KS, Marathe PA. Evaluation of potassium clavulanate on ethanol consumption and decision making in the model of ethanol dependence in mice. J of Pharmacol & Pharmacothe. 2014 Oct;5(4):250.

Sebastien C, Dorit R, Segev B, Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse, Alcohol. 2014 May;48(3):243-52.

Gerhard VH. Med eds. Drug Discovery and Evaluation Pharmacological Assays E.2.4.4 Elevated plus maze test. 2nd Ed. ISBN 3-540-42396-6; 2002: 434.

Jayasree T, Naveen A, Chandrasekhar N, Sunil M, Kishan PV, Jagan RN. Evaluation of muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of sapindustrifoliatus (pericarp) in swiss albino mice. J Chem Pharm Res. 2012;4(4):1960-4.

American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1994.

Herz A. Endogenous opioid systems and alcohol addiction. Psychopharmacology. 1997 Jul 1;129(2):99-111.

Igor P, John C, Crabbe A Novel Method to Assess Initial Sensitivity and Acute Functional Tolerance to Hypnotic Effects of Ethanol Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics July 2002;302(1):257-63.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, 2018. Available at: Accessed 25 April 2018.